Correlation of CD33 expression level with disease characteristics and response to gemtuzumab ozogamicin containing chemotherapy in childhood AML

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 02/2012; 119(16):3705-11. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-12-398370
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CD33 is expressed on the majority of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) leukemic blasts and is the target for gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a toxin-conjugated anti-CD33 mAb. In the present study, we quantified the CD33 mean fluorescent intensity of leukemic blasts prospectively in 619 de novo pediatric AML patients enrolled in Children's Oncology Group GO-containing clinical trials and determined its correlation with disease characteristics and clinical outcome. CD33 expression varied more than 2-log fold; a median mean fluorescent intensity of 129 (range, 3-1550.07) was observed. Patients were divided into 4 quartiles, quartiles 1-4 (Q1-4) based on expression and disease characteristics and clinical response defined across quartiles. High CD33 expression was associated with high-risk FLT3/ITD mutations (P < .001) and was inversely associated with low-risk disease (P < .001). Complete remission (CR) rates were similar, but patients in Q4 had significantly lower overall survival (57% ± 16% vs 77% ± 7%, P = .002) and disease-free survival from CR (44% ± 16% vs 62% ± 8%, P = .022). In a multivariate model, high CD33 expression remained a significant predictor of overall survival (P = .011) and disease-free survival (P = .038) from CR. Our findings suggest that CD33 expression is heterogeneous within de novo pediatric AML. High expression is associated with adverse disease features and is an independent predictor of inferior outcome. The correlation between CD33 expression and GO response is under investigation. These studies are registered at as NCT00070174 and NCT00372593.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To improve survival rates in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we evaluated gemtuzumab-ozogamicin (GO), a humanized immunoconjugate targeted against CD33, as an alternative to further chemotherapy dose escalation. Our primary objective was to determine whether adding GO to standard chemotherapy improved event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in children with newly diagnosed AML. Our secondary objectives examined outcomes by risk group and method of intensification. Patients and Methods Children, adolescents, and young adults ages 0 to 29 years with newly diagnosed AML were enrolled onto Children's Oncology Group trial AAML0531 and then were randomly assigned to either standard five-course chemotherapy alone or to the same chemotherapy with two doses of GO (3 mg/m(2)/dose) administered once in induction course 1 and once in intensification course 2 (two of three). Results There were 1,022 evaluable patients enrolled. GO significantly improved EFS (3 years: 53.1% v 46.9%; hazard ratio [HzR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.99; P = .04) but not OS (3 years: 69.4% v 65.4%; HzR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.13; P = .39). Although remission was not improved (88% v 85%; P = .15), posthoc analyses found relapse risk (RR) was significantly reduced among GO recipients overall (3 years: 32.8% v 41.3%; HzR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.91; P = .006). Despite an increased postremission toxic mortality (3 years: 6.6% v 4.1%; HzR, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.93 to 3.08; P = .09), disease-free survival was better among GO recipients (3 years: 60.6% v 54.7%; HzR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.02; P = .07). Conclusion GO added to chemotherapy improved EFS through a reduction in RR for children and adolescents with AML. (C) 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology
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