miR-155 regulates IFN-γ production in natural killer cells.
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules with important regulatory functions whose role in regulating natural killer (NK) cell biology is not well defined. Here, we show that miR-155 is synergistically induced in primary human NK cells after costimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, or with IL-12 and CD16 clustering. Over-expression of miR-155 enhanced induction of IFN-γ by IL-12 and IL-18 or CD16 stimulation, whereas knockdown of miR-155 or its disruption suppressed IFN-γ induction in monokine and/or CD16-stimulated NK cells. These effects on the regulation of NK cell IFN-γ expression were found to be mediated at least in part via miR-155's direct effects on the inositol phosphatase SHIP1. Consistent with this, we observed that modulation of miR-155 overrides IL-12 and IL-18-mediated regulation of SHIP1 expression in NK cells. Collectively, our data indicate that miR-155 expression is regulated by stimuli that strongly induce IFN-γ in NK cells such as IL-12, IL-18, and CD16 activation, and that miR-155 functions as a positive regulator of IFN-γ production in human NK cells, at least in part via down-regulating SHIP1. These findings may have clinical relevance for targeting miR-155 in neoplastic disease.
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ABSTRACT: We found upregulation of expression of the microRNA miR-155 in primary effector and effector memory CD8(+) T cells, but low miR-155 expression in naive and central memory cells. Antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses and viral clearance were impaired in miR-155-deficient mice, and this defect was intrinsic to CD8(+) T cells, as miR-155-deficient CD8(+) T cells mounted greatly diminished primary and memory responses. Conversely, miR-155 overexpression augmented antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo. Gene-expression profiling showed that miR-155-deficient CD8(+) T cells had enhanced type I interferon signaling and were more susceptible to interferon's antiproliferative effect. Inhibition of the type I interferon-associated transcription factors STAT1 or IRF7 resulted in enhanced responses of miR-155-deficient CD8(+) T cells in vivo. We have thus identified a previously unknown role for miR-155 in regulating responsiveness to interferon and CD8(+) T cell responses to pathogens in vivo.Nature Immunology 04/2013; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NK cells are the main cells of the innate immune system that produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and they express this cytokine at early stages of maturation in response to cytokine stimulation. Conversely, acquisition of IFN-γ-competence in CD4+ T helper cells requires a differentiation process from naïve towards type 1 (Th1) cells, which is associated with epigenetic remodeling at the IFNG locus. In the present study, we show that the ability of NK cells to produce IFN-γ in response to activating receptor (actR) engagement is gradually acquired during terminal differentiation and is accompanied by progressively higher NF-κB activation in response to actR triggering. Moreover, during the differentiation process NK cells gradually display increasing expression of IFNG and TBX21 (encoding T-bet) transcripts and demethylation at the IFNG promoter. This study provides new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying NK-cell ability to express IFN-γ upon actR engagement. Thus, we propose that in order to efficiently produce IFN-γ in response to infected or transformed cells, NK cells gain Th1-like features, such as higher IFN-γ competence and epigenetic remodeling of the IFNG promoter, during their terminal differentiation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reservedEuropean Journal of Immunology 04/2014; · 4.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of approx. 22 nt long non-coding RNAs that interfere with mRNA translation and stability. Using high-throughput sequencing the present study investigated miRNA expression changes after infection of cultured host cells with the microbial model pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In macrophages, which play a key role in the orchestration of innate immunity, infection caused the induction of miRNAs miR-21, miR-146 and miR-155. Moreover, all members of the evolutionarily conserved let-7 miRNA family were down-regulated in infected macrophages. This work reports let-7 miRNAs to function in the macrophage inflammatory response by repressing the major cytokines IL6 and IL10 post-transcriptionally. Consequently a reduction of let-7 expression in microbially activated macrophages results in a specific increase in IL6 and IL10 production. Furthermore, miR-146 and miR-155 could be assigned important functions in the control of the sensitivity and activity of macrophages to microbial stimuli: while miR-146 primarily reduced the activity of the plasma membrane associated lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, thereby preventing a premature macrophage inflammatory response, miR-155 stayed strictly coupled to inflammation in order to limit the activity of various pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. Interestingly, it could be shown that stimulation of the cytosolic immune receptor NOD2 favors the macrophage inflammatory response and the concomitant induction of miR-155, while bypassing the negative control by miR-146. This may prevent hyposensitivity to cell-invasive pathogens. In summary, these observations suggest that miRNAs exert key functions in the post-transcriptional control of the host cell response to microbial pathogens.01/2013, Degree: summa cum laude, Supervisor: Prof. Dr. J. Vogel