A new deletion ablating NESP55 causes loss of maternal imprint of A/B GNAS and autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib.
ABSTRACT Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-1b) develop resistance toward PTH, leading to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. PHP-1b is an imprinted human disorder associated with methylation changes at one or several differentially methylated regions at the GNAS locus. This complex locus gives rise to several different transcripts with different patterns of imprinted expression depending on promoter methylation. They can be either coding [Gαs, XLαs, and neuroendocrine secretory protein-55 (NESP55)] or nontranslated (A/B and AS). The paternal AS transcript lies antisense to nesp55.
Define the genetic defect in a new family with three patients presenting autosomal dominant PHP-1b.
We used methylation analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, and genotyping to characterize the defect. AS expression was studied in two patients and their unaffected mothers.
A novel deletion of 18,988 bp that removes NESP55 and a large part of its counterpart GNAS AS intron 4 was discovered. On maternal transmission, this deletion causes loss of A/B methylation without affecting XL/AS imprint. On paternal transmission, there are no methylation anomalies. The deletion creates a cryptic exon contained within AS intron 4, which is expressed from the mutated allele, be it paternal or maternal.
This new deletion suggests that NESP55 is an additional imprinting control region that directs A/B methylation in humans. We bring arguments in support of the theory of reciprocal inhibition between the expression of NESP and AS. However, determining whether loss of methylation at the A/B differentially methylated region is a consequence of the loss of NESP expression or of the expression of AS requires additional investigations.
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ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) indicates a group of heterogeneous disorders whose common feature is represented by impaired signaling of hormones that activate Gsalpha, encoded by the imprinted GNAS gene. PHP-Ib patients have isolated Parathormone (PTH) resistance and GNAS epigenetic defects while PHP-Ia cases present with hormone resistance and characteristic features jointly termed as Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) due to maternally inherited GNAS mutations or similar epigenetic defects as found for PHP-Ib. Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) patients with an AHO phenotype and no hormone resistance and progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) cases have inactivating paternally inherited GNAS mutations. We here describe 17 subjects with an AHO-like phenotype that could be compatible with having PPHP but none of them carried Gsalpha mutations. Functional platelet studies however showed an obvious Gs hypofunction in the 13 patients that were available for testing. Methylation for the three differentially methylated GNAS regions was quantified via the Sequenom EpiTYPER. Patients showed significant hypermethylation of the XL amplicon compared to controls (36 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 3%; p<0.001); a pattern that is reversed to XL hypomethylation found in PHPIb. Interestingly, XL hypermethylation was associated with reduced XLalphaS protein levels in the patients' platelets. Methylation for NESP and ExonA/B was significantly different for some but not all patients, though most patients have site-specific CpG methylation abnormalities in these amplicons. Since some AHO features are present in other imprinting disorders, the methylation of IGF2, H19, SNURF and GRB10 was quantified. Surprisingly, significant IGF2 hypermethylation (20 ± 10 vs. 14 ± 7%; p<0.05) and SNURF hypomethylation (23 ± 6 vs. 32 6%; p<0.001) was found in patients vs. controls, while H19 and GRB10 methylation was normal. In conclusion, this is the first report of methylation defects including GNAS in patients with an AHO-like phenotype without endocrinological abnormalities. Additional studies are still needed to correlate the methylation defect with the clinical phenotype.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38579. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have long been recognized at imprinted gene loci and provided early paradigms to investigate their functions and molecular mechanisms of action. The characteristic feature of imprinted genes, their monoallelic, parental-origin-dependent expression, is achieved through complex epigenetic regulation, which is modulated by ncRNAs. This minireview focuses on two imprinted gene clusters, in which changes in ncRNA expression contribute to human disorders. At the GNAS locus loss of NESP RNA can cause autosomal dominant Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b (AD-PHP-Ib), while at the SNRPN-UBE3A locus a long ncRNA and processed snoRNAs play a role in Angelman-Syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi-Syndrome (PWS). The ncRNAs silence overlapping protein-coding transcripts in sense or anti-sense orientation through changes in histone modifications as well as DNA methylation at CpG-rich sequence motifs. Their epigenetic modulatory functions are required in early development in the pre-implantation embryo or already in the parental germ cells. However, it remains unclear whether the sequence homology-carrying ncRNA itself is required, or whether the process of its transcription through other promoters causes the silencing effect.Frontiers in Genetics 01/2012; 3:264.
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ABSTRACT: Context:Recent advances in genetics and epigenetics have revealed an overlap between molecular and clinical features of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) subtypes, broadening the previous spectrum of PHP genotype-phenotype correlations, indicating limitations of the current classification of the disease.Objectives:The aim of the study was to screen patients with clinical diagnoses of PHP type I or pseudo-PHP for underlying molecular defects and explore possible correlations between molecular findings and clinical features.Patients and Methods:We investigated the GNAS locus at the molecular level in 72 affected patients (46 women; 26 men), from 56 non-related families. Clinical data were obtained for 63 of these patients (38 women; 25 men).Results:The molecular analysis showed 35 patients carried structural mutations, 32 had loss of methylation, and 2 had 2q37 deletion, but did not reveal any (epi)mutation for 3 patients. Comparing these results and the clinical data, we observed that a younger age at diagnosis was associated with structural defects at the GNAS gene, and epigenetic defects with those diagnosed later in life (9.19±1.64 vs. 24.57±2.28 years, p <0.0001).Conclusions:This first global review of PHP in Spain highlights the importance of a detailed clinical and genetic study of each patient and the integrated analysis of the findings from the two approaches. It may also help geneticists and clinicians to raise the suspicion of PHP earlier, reach more accurate diagnoses, and provide PHP patients and their families with useful genetic information and counseling, thereby to improving outcomes and quality of life.The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 03/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor