Global Iodine Status in 2011 and Trends over the Past Decade

Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 4.23). 02/2012; 142(4):744-50. DOI: 10.3945/jn.111.149393
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Salt iodization has been introduced in many countries to control iodine deficiency. Our aim was to assess global and regional iodine status as of 2011 and compare it to previous WHO estimates from 2003 and 2007. Using the network of national focal points of the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders as well as a literature search, we compiled new national data on urinary iodine concentration (UIC) to add to the existing data in the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System Micronutrients Database. The most recent data on UIC, primarily national data in school-age children (SAC), were analyzed. The median UIC was used to classify national iodine status and the UIC distribution to estimate the number of individuals with low iodine intakes by severity categories. Survey data on UIC cover 96.1% of the world's population of SAC, and since 2007, new national data are available for 58 countries, including Canada, Pakistan, the U.K., and the U.S.. At the national level, there has been major progress: from 2003 to 2011, the number of iodine-deficient countries decreased from 54 to 32 and the number of countries with adequate iodine intake increased from 67 to 105. However, globally, 29.8% (95% CI = 29.4, 30.1) of SAC (241 million) are estimated to have insufficient iodine intakes. Sharp regional differences persist; southeast Asia has the largest number of SAC with low iodine intakes (76 million) and there has been little progress in Africa, where 39% (58 million) have inadequate iodine intakes. In summary, although iodine nutrition has been improving since 2003, global progress may be slowing. Intervention programs need to be extended to reach the nearly one-third of the global population that still has inadequate iodine intakes.

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    • "Unfortunately , this is not always achieved and children are susceptible to certain deficiencies. In a majority of these rural landlocked areas micronutrient deficiencies, particularly of iodine, are inevitable and well documented (Andersson et al., 2012; FAO, 2010a; Zimmermann & Andersson, 2012). Hence there is a need to understand the reactions of both the parents at the household level and the school heads in these areas, toward biofortification as a health strategy that directly affects children's school performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data was analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be a valuable for assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 06/2015; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.05.038 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "This represents impressive progress, however, an estimated 31.5% of school age children still have inadequate iodine intakes (de Benoist et al., 2008). Andersson et al. (2012) provide a more recent assessment of progress on reducing iodine deficiency using urinary iodide concentration (UIC) data from the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System Micronutrients Database. They report that the number of countries where iodine deficiency is common decreased from 54 in 2003 to 32 in 2011. "
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    • "Nearly two billion (28%) of the world's population, of whom more than 321 million (39%) are Africans, are at risk of insufficient iodine intake [6]. Based on the global data of iodine nutrition, Ethiopia is categorized among moderately iodine deficient countries [6]. Similarly, Ethiopia is one of the African countries with the highest prevalence of IDD and with the weakest program to prevent IDD [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150 μg/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1 μg/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy.
    Journal of nutrition and metabolism 07/2014; 2014:878926. DOI:10.1155/2014/878926
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