Global Iodine Status in 2011 and Trends over the Past Decade

Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 02/2012; 142(4):744-50. DOI: 10.3945/jn.111.149393
Source: PubMed


Salt iodization has been introduced in many countries to control iodine deficiency. Our aim was to assess global and regional iodine status as of 2011 and compare it to previous WHO estimates from 2003 and 2007. Using the network of national focal points of the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders as well as a literature search, we compiled new national data on urinary iodine concentration (UIC) to add to the existing data in the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System Micronutrients Database. The most recent data on UIC, primarily national data in school-age children (SAC), were analyzed. The median UIC was used to classify national iodine status and the UIC distribution to estimate the number of individuals with low iodine intakes by severity categories. Survey data on UIC cover 96.1% of the world's population of SAC, and since 2007, new national data are available for 58 countries, including Canada, Pakistan, the U.K., and the U.S.. At the national level, there has been major progress: from 2003 to 2011, the number of iodine-deficient countries decreased from 54 to 32 and the number of countries with adequate iodine intake increased from 67 to 105. However, globally, 29.8% (95% CI = 29.4, 30.1) of SAC (241 million) are estimated to have insufficient iodine intakes. Sharp regional differences persist; southeast Asia has the largest number of SAC with low iodine intakes (76 million) and there has been little progress in Africa, where 39% (58 million) have inadequate iodine intakes. In summary, although iodine nutrition has been improving since 2003, global progress may be slowing. Intervention programs need to be extended to reach the nearly one-third of the global population that still has inadequate iodine intakes.

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    • "A decrease in I-deficient countries from 110 in 1993 to 32 in 2012 has been reported, due mainly to the use of iodised salt 14 . Andersson et al. (2012) 1 calculated 241 million SAC to be at risk of IDD in 2011, which extrapolates to 1.88 billion people globally and this represents a decrease of 6.4% since 2007. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterise nutritional-I status in Malawi. Dietary-I intakes were assessed using new datasets of crop, fish, salt and water-I concentrations, while I status was assessed for 60 women living on each of calcareous and non-calcareous soils as defined by urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Iodine concentration in staple foods was low, with median concentrations of 0.01 mg kg-1 in maize grain, 0.008 mg kg-1 in roots and tubers, but 0.155 mg kg-1 in leafy vegetables. Freshwater fish is a good source of dietary-I with a median concentration of 0.51 mg kg-1. Mean Malawian dietary-Iodine intake from food, excluding salt, was just 7.8 μg d-1 compared to an adult requirement of 150 μg d-1. Despite low dietary-I intake from food, median UICs were 203 μg L-1 with only 12% defined as I deficient whilst 21% exhibited excessive I intake. Iodised salt is likely to be the main source of dietary I intake in Malawi; thus, I nutrition mainly depends on the usage and concentration of I in iodised salt. Drinking water could be a significant source of I in some areas, providing up to 108 μg d-1 based on consumption of 2 L d-1.
    Scientific Reports 10/2015; 5:15251. DOI:10.1038/srep15251 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Unfortunately , this is not always achieved and children are susceptible to certain deficiencies. In a majority of these rural landlocked areas micronutrient deficiencies, particularly of iodine, are inevitable and well documented (Andersson et al., 2012; FAO, 2010a; Zimmermann & Andersson, 2012). Hence there is a need to understand the reactions of both the parents at the household level and the school heads in these areas, toward biofortification as a health strategy that directly affects children's school performance. "
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    ABSTRACT: To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data was analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be a valuable for assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 06/2015; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2015.05.038 · 2.69 Impact Factor
    • "Over the last decades, salt iodization programmes have been effective in preventing and controlling iodine deficiency disorders. But according to Zimmermann and Andersson (2012), these programmes need to be strengthened and extended to reach nearly one-third of the global population that still has inadequate iodine intakes. At the same time, WHO is promoting the implementation of programmes to reduce population salt intake as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Marine fish are a rich source of iodine in the human diet. Exogenous feeding under captivity opens the possibility of tailoring fish composition with health valuable nutrients, such as iodine, and establishing it as a functional food. A study was undertaken to test the efficacy of various dietary iodine supplemental forms on the growth performance of gilthead seabream and assess the effects on sensory attributes and nutritional value of fillets. Duplicate groups of 35 seabream (IBW: 252 g) were fed over 118 days: a) control diet (CTRL) with 3 mg I kg− 1, supplied as potassium iodide; b) this same control diet supplemented with potassium iodide (diet KI: 26 mg I·kg− 1) or with ethylenediamine dihydroiodide (diet EDDI; 22 mg I·kg− 1); c) a fourth diet with 10% of Laminaria digitata, an iodine-rich macroalgae (diet LAM). At the end of the trial, fish doubled their initial weight, but irrespective of the iodine form used, the elevation of dietary iodine level had no effect (P > 0.05) on feed intake, growth rate, feed conversion, nutrient utilization or whole-body composition. Dietary iodine supplementation led to a significant increase (P < 0.05) of the iodine content in seabream fillets. In comparison to the CTRL treatment (0.13 mg·kg− 1), seabream fed KI and EDDI supplemented diets showed a significant enhancement (P < 0.05) of their fillet iodine content (0.17 mg·kg− 1). Feeding seabream with the iodine-rich brown algae L. digitata resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) 6.5-fold increase (0.84 mg·kg− 1 fillet) of fillet iodine content over the levels found in the CTRL treatment. Overall sensory difference between CTRL and fish fed supplemented diets was significant (P < 0.05) only for fish fed the EDDI diet. Steam-cooking elicited 13–20% losses of the iodine content of seabream fillets. Iodine supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the fatty acid profile of seabream muscle. Dietary iodine-rich macroalgae was an effective and natural strategy to fortify muscle with iodine, showing that a 160 g portion of steam-cooked seabream fillets could cover approximately 80% of the Daily Recommended Intake for iodine and 370% of the Daily Adequate Intake of EPA + DHA for enhanced cardiovascular health in adults.
    Aquaculture 02/2015; 437:51-59. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.11.028 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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