Pediatric overweight and obesity are growing problems worldwide, with increasing prevalence among even infants and young children. The refractory nature of early overweight necessitates identifying the factors contributing to early excess weight gain for successful intervention. Early feeding practices may be particularly important in shaping long-term vulnerability to obesity. How and what infants are fed can influence weight gain, adiposity, and energy metabolism during infancy and across the life course through a number of interacting physiological and behavioral pathways. This article argues that these biological mechanisms interact with the social and behavioral context of infant feeding to create differential vulnerability to later obesity.
This article reviews recent research on the potential mechanisms linking infant feeding and risk of later obesity, focusing on the emerging role of microflora colonization.
The nutritive and non-nutritive components of breastmilk, formula and solid foods and the practices surrounding feeding shape the infant metabolome, programming growth rates and body composition, altering metabolism and physiology, promoting differential microfloral colonization, and shaping behavioral responses to foods and eating.
The occurrence of chronic disease precursors at increasingly younger ages and the tendency of overweight young children to become overweight adolescents and adults underscore the importance of understanding this complex early exposure and intervening early to prevent the development of obesity in increasingly weight-promoting environments.
"In the groups receiving iron fortified cereal, there was a decline in both Firmicutes and Actinobacteria , the phylas containing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria respectively; these declines were not present in the meat or iron and zinc fortified groups. The dietary shift associated with the transition from human milk to family foods fundamentally alters the composition of the intestinal microbiota (Thompson, 2012) in both breastfed and formula fed infants, and likely driven primarily by the differences in macronutrients and oligosaccharides between human milk and commercial infant formula. Some of the shift may be related to changes in iron availability as originally hypothesized by Balmer and Wharton (1991), and seen in older infants and children with the addition of iron fortified biscuits as an IDA preventive treatment (Zimmermann et al., 2010). "
"Conversely , we hypothesize that formula and solid feeding, which are associated with higher energy intake (Heinig et al., 1993) and more rapid infant growth over the first year of life (Butte et al., 2000b; Dewey, 2009), are associated with higher steroid levels. Since feeding practices are associated with differences in infant size and breastand formula-feeding may differentially influence linear growth and body composition (Thompson, 2012), we also test whether breast-, formula-, and solid-feeding are independent predictors of sex steroids, controlling for their indirect effects through differential infant growth. "
"Cases of liver carcinomas are the fifth most common in the global ranking of cancer diagnoses , growing in line with the growth of NAFLD [13,14]. Because the latter disease may be due to the insulin resistance found in obese individuals and because the incidence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, affecting children, youths and adult men and women , the importance of the prevention and treatment of obesity, which can be initiated in childhood by physical exercise, is important to minimize the inconvenience caused by this condition in adulthood. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation, by triggering insulin resistance, may contribute to the accumulation of hepatic fat, and this accumulation by lipotoxicity can lead the organ to fail. Because obesity is growing at an alarming rate and, worryingly, in a precocious way, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate physical training performed from childhood to adulthood on liver fat metabolism in rats.
Twenty rats that were 28 days old were divided into two groups: control (C) and trained (T). The C Group was kept in cages without exercise, and the T group was submitted to swimming exercise for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 90 days of age (8 weeks) at 80% of the anaerobic threshold determined by the lactate minimum test. At the end of the experiment, the body weight gain, insulin sensitivity (glucose disappearance rate during the insulin tolerance test), concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) and hepatic lipogenic rate were analyzed. For the statistical analysis, the Student t-test was used with the level of significance preset at 5%.
The T group showed lower body weight gain, FFA concentrations, fat accumulation, hepatic lipogenic rate and insulin resistance.
The regular practice of moderate physical exercise from childhood can contribute to the reduction of obesity and insulin resistance and help prevent the development of accumulation of hepatic fat in adulthood.
Lipids in Health and Disease 03/2013; 12(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-12-29 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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