Placebo-controlled trial of amantadine for severe traumatic brain injury.
ABSTRACT Amantadine hydrochloride is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness after traumatic brain injury. Preliminary studies have suggested that amantadine may promote functional recovery.
We enrolled 184 patients who were in a vegetative or minimally conscious state 4 to 16 weeks after traumatic brain injury and who were receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive amantadine or placebo for 4 weeks and were followed for 2 weeks after the treatment was discontinued. The rate of functional recovery on the Disability Rating Scale (DRS; range, 0 to 29, with higher scores indicating greater disability) was compared over the 4 weeks of treatment (primary outcome) and during the 2-week washout period with the use of mixed-effects regression models.
During the 4-week treatment period, recovery was significantly faster in the amantadine group than in the placebo group, as measured by the DRS score (difference in slope, 0.24 points per week; P=0.007), indicating a benefit with respect to the primary outcome measure. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, the treatment effect was similar for patients in a vegetative state and those in a minimally conscious state. The rate of improvement in the amantadine group slowed during the 2 weeks after treatment (weeks 5 and 6) and was significantly slower than the rate in the placebo group (difference in slope, 0.30 points per week; P=0.02). The overall improvement in DRS scores between baseline and week 6 (2 weeks after treatment was discontinued) was similar in the two groups. There were no significant differences in the incidence of serious adverse events.
Amantadine accelerated the pace of functional recovery during active treatment in patients with post-traumatic disorders of consciousness. (Funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00970944.).
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To elucidate the clinical course of the vegetative state after severe closed-head injury, the Traumatic Coma Data Bank was analyzed for outcome at the time of discharge from the hospital and after follow-up intervals ranging up to 3 years after injury. Of 650 patients with closed-head injury available for analysis, 93 (14%) were discharged in a vegetative state. In comparison with conscious survivors, patients in a vegetative state sustained more severe closed-head injury as reflected by the Glasgow Coma Scale scores and pupillary findings and more frequently had diffuse injury complicated by swelling or shift in midline structures. Of 84 patients in a vegetative state who provided follow-up data, 41% became conscious by 6 months, 52% regained consciousness by 1 year, and 58% recovered consciousness within the 3-year follow-up interval. A logistic regression failed to identify predictors of recovery from the vegetative state.Archives of Neurology 07/1991; 48(6):580-5. · 7.58 Impact Factor
Neurology 12/2002; 59(9):1473; author reply 1473-4. · 8.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We determined estimates of survival in children, 3-15 years of age, in the vegetative state (VS) (n = 564), immobile minimally conscious state (MCS) (n = 705), and mobile MCS (n = 3,806). Data were extracted from the annual Client Development Evaluation Reports of the California Department of Developmental Services between 1988 and 1997 using the operational definitions for these three states on the basis of 15 descriptive behavioral categories. Patients were also categorized according to the following four etiologies: acquired (traumatic and nontraumatic) brain injury; perinatal/genetic; degenerative; and unknown/undetermined. The percentage of patients surviving 8 years was 63%, 65%, and 81%, for the VS, immobile MCS, and mobile MCS, respectively. Children in the VS and MCSs with acquired brain injury had lower mortality rates and those with degenerative diseases the highest mortality rates. We observed little difference in survival between patients in the VS and immobile MCS, suggesting that the presence of consciousness is not a critical variable in determining life expectancy. Furthermore, survival was much greater for patients in the mobile MCS than for those in the immobile MCS, suggesting that mobility is more important in predicting survival than the level of consciousness.Pediatric Neurology 11/2000; 23(4):312-9. · 1.52 Impact Factor