Article

APP transgenic mice for modelling behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD).

Département de Psychologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Rouen, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex, France.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (Impact Factor: 10.28). 02/2012; 36(5):1357-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.02.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioural and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls. However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
192 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The plant alkaloid galantamine is an established symptomatic drug treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing temporary cognitive and global relief in human patients. In this study, the 5X Familial Alzheimer's Disease (5XFAD) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of chronic galantamine treatment on behavior and amyloid β (Aβ) plaque deposition in the mouse brain. Quantification of plaques in untreated 5XFAD mice showed a gender specific phenotype; the plaque density increased steadily reaching saturation in males after 10 months of age, whereas in females the density further increased until after 14 months of age. Moreover, females consistently displayed a higher plaque density in comparison to males of the same age. Chronic oral treatment with galantamine resulted in improved performance in behavioral tests, such as open field and light-dark avoidance, already at mildly affected stages compared to untreated controls. Treated animals of both sexes showed significantly lower plaque density in the brain, i.e., the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, gliosis being always positively correlated to plaque load. A high dose treatment with a daily uptake of 26 mg/kg body weight was tolerated well and produced significantly larger positive effects than a lower dose treatment (14 mg/kg body weight) in terms of plaque density and behavior. These results strongly support that galantamine, in addition to improving cognitive and behavioral symptoms in AD, may have disease-modifying and neuroprotective properties, as is indicated by delayed Aβ plaque formation and reduced gliosis.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89454. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid β (iAβ) has been linked to mild cognitive impairment that may precede Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset. This neuropathological trait was recently mimicked in a novel animal model of AD, the hemizygous transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP (Tg+/−) rat. The characterization of the behavioral phenotypes in this animal model could provide a baseline of efficacy for earlier therapeutic interventions. The aim of the present study was to undertake a longitudinal study of Aβ accumulation and a comprehensive behavioral evaluation of this transgenic rat model. We assessed exploratory activity, anxiety-related behaviors, recognition memory, working memory, spatial learning and reference memory at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. In parallel, we measured Aβ by ELISA, Western blots and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry in hippocampal samples. SDS-soluble Aβ peptide accumulated at low levels (~9 pg/mg) without differences among ages. However, Western blots showed SDS-resistant Aβ oligomers (~30 kDa) at 6 and 12 months, but not at 3 months. When compared to wild-type (WT), male Tg+/− rats exhibited a spatial reference memory deficit in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) as early as 3 months of age, which persisted at 6 and 12 months. In addition, Tg+/− rats displayed a working memory impairment in the Y-maze and higher anxiety levels in the Open Field (OF) at 6 and 12 months of age, but not at 3 months. Exploratory activity in the OF was similar to that of WT at all-time points. Spatial learning in the MWM and the recognition memory, as assessed by the Novel Object Recognition Test, were unimpaired at any time point. The data from the present study demonstrate that the hemizygous transgenic McGill-R-Thy1-APP rat has a wide array of behavioral and cognitive impairments from young adulthood to middle-age. The low Aβ burden and early emotional and cognitive deficits in this transgenic rat model supports its potential use for drug discovery purposes in early AD.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 09/2014; 8(321). · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate pesticide. This pesticide induces cognitive impairments, oxidative stress and neuronal damage, which suggests a possible relationship between CPF exposure and Alzheimer's disease. In this study we examined long-term changes in behavior and brain levels of the amyloid beta (Aβ) protein after repeated CPF exposure in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Tg2576 male mice between four and six months of age carrying the human Swedish mutation for Alzheimer's disease were exposed to eight doses of 25 mg/kg of CPF distributed over four weeks. Five months after exposure, general activity was measured in an open-field, while learning and memory were assessed in a Morris water maze task six months after treatment with CPF. Levels of the Aβ fragments (1-40 and 1-42) were also measured in the frontal cortex and hippocampal brain regions. Motor activity was increased in CPF-exposed mice. Although acquisition learning in a water maze task was not affected, retention was worsened in CPF-exposed mice. There were no significant increases of Aβ levels in the brains of CPF-treated mice six months after exposure. These findings raise concerns about the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases in vulnerable subjects following repeated exposure to CPF.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 08/2014; 72. · 2.61 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
77 Downloads
Available from
May 15, 2014