Healing of rat femoral segmental defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2: A dose response study

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions (Impact Factor: 1.74). 03/2012; 12(1):28-37.
Source: PubMed


Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is becoming a common clinical approach to enhance bone repair. There is little or no information in the literature on the dose of rhBMP-2 required for effective healing of critical-sized defects such as those associated with trauma. In this study, we used a segmental defect model to assess the dose response of rhBMP-2 using quantitative and qualitative endpoints.
Femoral defects in rats were replaced with absorbable collagen sponges carrying rhBMP-2 (0, 1, 5, 10 or 20 μg; N=5). At 4-weeks new bone formation was assessed using quantitative (radiography and microcomputed tomography) and qualitative (histology and backscattered-SEM) endpoints statistically compared.
rhBMP-2 showed increased bridging in the gap. Quantitative evaluation presented a bi-phasic dose response curve. Histological assessment revealed that with rhBMP-2 the defect showed the presence of spongy bone with the trabeculae layered with active osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The density and compactness of the bone varied with the dose of rhBMP-2.
Our findings revealed that all doses of rhBMP-2 result in new bone formation. However, there is an optimum dose of 12 μg of rhBMP-2 for bone repair in this model, above which and below which less stimulation of bone occurs.

Download full-text


Available from: Dale R Sumner, Dec 26, 2013

Click to see the full-text of:

Article: Healing of rat femoral segmental defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2: A dose response study

5.7 MB

See full-text
  • Source
    • "PBS-laden), 2. Fast release group with empty GMPs and BMP-2 added directly to the hydrogel, 3. Slow release group with BMP-2-loaded GMPs, dispersed in the hydrogel (Table 1). BMP-2 concentrations were adjusted to the calculated effective dose per experimental setup, based on literature [22]–[24]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The design of bioactive three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is a major focus in bone tissue engineering. Incorporation of growth factors into bioprinted scaffolds offers many new possibilities regarding both biological and architectural properties of the scaffolds. This study investigates whether the sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) influences osteogenicity of tissue engineered bioprinted constructs. BMP-2 loaded on gelatin microparticles (GMPs) was used as a sustained release system, which was dispersed in hydrogel-based constructs and compared to direct inclusion of BMP-2 in alginate or control GMPs. The constructs were supplemented with goat multipotent stromal cells (gMSCs) and biphasic calcium phosphate to study osteogenic differentiation and bone formation respectively. BMP-2 release kinetics and bioactivity showed continuous release for three weeks coinciding with osteogenicity. Osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of bioprinted GMP containing constructs were investigated after subcutaneous implantation in mice or rats. BMP-2 significantly increased bone formation, which was not influenced by the release timing. We showed that 3D printing of controlled release particles is feasible and that the released BMP-2 directs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72610. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072610 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The scaffolds that contained both BMP-2 and testosterone were treated with testosterone first and then with rhBMP-2. The dose of rhBMP-2 (5 µg/scaffold) used was chosen based on previous studies [6], [29]. 100 µg of testosterone per scaffold was used because this dose is equivalent to 1.8 ng/ml in humans, approximately the lower limit of physiological circulating concentration in men (2–9 ng/ml) [30], [31]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss of large bone segments due to fracture resulting from trauma or tumor removal is a common clinical problem. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of scaffolds containing testosterone, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or a combination of both for treatment of critical-size segmental bone defects in mice. A 2.5-mm wide osteotomy was created on the left femur of wildtype and androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. Testosterone, BMP-2, or both were delivered locally using a scaffold that bridged the fracture. Results of X-ray imaging showed that in both wildtype and ARKO mice, BMP-2 treatment induced callus formation within 14 days after initiation of the treatment. Testosterone treatment also induced callus formation within 14 days in wildtype but not in ARKO mice. Micro-computed tomography and histological examinations revealed that testosterone treatment caused similar degrees of callus formation as BMP-2 treatment in wildtype mice, but had no such effect in ARKO mice, suggesting that the androgen receptor is required for testosterone to initiate fracture healing. These results demonstrate that testosterone is as effective as BMP-2 in promoting the healing of critical-size segmental defects and that combination therapy with testosterone and BMP-2 is superior to single therapy. Results of this study may provide a foundation to develop a cost effective and efficient therapeutic modality for treatment of bone fractures with segmental defects.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70234. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070234 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is the most potent growth factor with osteoinductive properties [13,14]. Of all BMPs, BMP-2 has the most well-known effect on promotion of the process of defect repair and fracture healing, and can induce pluripotent stem cells and bone progenitor cells to differentiate into osteogenic and chondrogenic cells [15–19]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon-bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on tendon-bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control), and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2) were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon-bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N) (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively). In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3) was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4) or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0) (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively). Based on the histological findings, there was an increased amount of perpendicular collagen fibers formed between the tendon and bone in the bMSCs+Lv-Control and bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group, compared with the gastrocnemius tendons. The proliferation of cartilage-like cells and the formation of fibrocartilage-like tissue were highest within the bone tunnels in the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group. These results suggest that this lentivirus can be used to efficiently infect bMSCs with BMP-2. Furthermore, tendons wrapped by bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 improved tendon-bone healing.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(10):13605-20. DOI:10.3390/ijms131013605 · 2.86 Impact Factor
Show more