Effect of a lifestyle intervention on adiposity and fitness in socially disadvantaged subgroups of preschoolers: A cluster-randomized trial (Ballabeina)

Institute of Exercise and Health Science, University of Basel, Birsstrasse 320B, CH-4052 Basel, Switzerland.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.93). 02/2012; 54(5):335-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.02.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A multidimensional lifestyle intervention performed in 652 preschoolers (72% of migrant, 38% of low educational level (EL) parents) reduced body fat, but not BMI and improved fitness. The objective of this study is to examine whether the intervention was equally effective in children of migrant and/or low EL parents.
Cluster-randomized controlled single blinded trial, conducted in 2008/09 in 40 randomly selected preschools in Switzerland. The culturally tailored intervention consisted of a physical activity program and lessons on nutrition, media use and sleep. Primary outcomes included BMI and aerobic fitness. Secondary outcomes included %body fat, waist circumference and motor agility.
Children of migrant parents benefitted similarly from the intervention compared to their counterparts (p for interaction≥ 0.09). However, children of low EL parents benefitted less, although these differences did not reach statistical significance (p for interaction≥ 0.06). Average intervention effect sizes for BMI were -0.10, -0.05, -0.11 and 0.04 kg/m(2) and for aerobic fitness were 0.55, 0.20, 0.37 and -0.05 stages for children of non-migrant, migrant, middle/high EL and low EL parents, respectively.
This intervention was similarly effective among preschoolers of migrant parents compared to their counterparts, while children of low EL parents benefitted less.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood obesity is a global health problem with short-and long-term health consequences. This systematic review presents a summary of the experiences on different family-, school-, and clinic-based interventions. Materials and Methods: Electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus scientific databases. We included those studies conducted among obese individuals aged up to 18 years. Our search yielded 105 relevant papers, 70 of them were conducted as high quality clinical trials. Results: Our findings propose that school-based programs can have long-term effects in a large target group. This can be related to this fact that children spend a considerable part of their time in school, and adopt some parts of lifestyle there. They have remarkable consequences on health behaviors, but as there are some common limitations, their effects on anthropometric measures are not clear. Due to the crucial role of parents in development of children's behaviors, family-based interventions are reported to have successful effects in some aspects; but selection bias and high dropout rate can confound their results. Clinic-based interventions revealed favorable effects. They include dietary or other lifestyle changes like increasing physical activity or behavior therapy. It seems that a comprehensive intervention including diet and exercise are more practical. When they have different designs, results are controversial. Conclusion: We suggest that among different types of interventional programs, a multidisciplinary approach in schools in which children's family are involved, can be the best and most sustainable approach for management of childhood obesity. Primordial/primary prevention of pediatrics obesity and establishment of a healthy lifestyle behaviors from early life are the favored against the epidemic of obesity at the global level. [16] Effective interventions for prevention and control of childhood obesity should be considered for different aspects. [11,17-24] Experts recommend specific eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors through counseling. [14] Along with clinic-based interventions, researchers have attempted to manage obesity by virtue of family, community, school, and after school programs. Based on Cochrane review of obesity prevention programs in children, most of the well-designed interventions had positive results especially in 6-12-year-old children. [25] Clearly targeted interventions for children and population-based approach for adolescents may be useful and make economic sense. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review the effects of various clinical-, family-, and community-based interventions targeting the control of childhood obesity and make a suggestion for future interventions.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 12/2014; 19:993-1008. · 0.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundTackling childhood obesity is one of the major contemporary public health policy challenges and vital in terms of addressing socioeconomic health inequalities.We aimed to systematically review studies of the effectiveness of interventions (individual, community and societal) operating via different approaches (targeted or universal) in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity-related outcomes amongst children.MethodsNine electronic databases were searched from start date to October 2012 along with website and grey literature searches. The review examined the best available international evidence from interventions that aimed to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or improve obesity-related behaviours (diet and/or physical activity) amongst children (aged 0-18 years) in any setting and country, so long as they provided relevant information and analysis on both socioeconomic status and obesity-related outcomes. Data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using established mechanisms and narrative synthesis was conducted.ResultsWe located 23 studies that provided the ‘best available’ (strongest methodologically) international evidence. At the individual level (n = 4), there was indicative evidence that screen time reduction and mentoring health promotion interventions could be effective in reducing inequalities in obesity. For the community level interventions (n = 17), evidence was inconclusive - with some studies suggesting that school-based health promotion activities and community-based group-based programmes were effective in reducing obesity - others not. Societal level evaluations were few (n = 1). However, there was no evidence to suggest that any of these intervention types increase inequalities and several studies found that interventions could at least prevent the widening of inequalities in obesity. The majority of studies were from America and were of 6-12 year old children.ConclusionsThe review has found only limited evidence although some individual and community based interventions may be effective in reducing socio-economic inequalities in obesity-related outcomes amongst children but further research is required, particularly of more complex, societal level interventions and amongst adolescents.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-834) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):834. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-834 · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure), food intake, and choice in the setting of acute social stress in normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children as well as the impact of psychological risk factors. After receiving written consent from their parents, 26 NW (BMI < 90(th) percentile) and 24 7-to 11-year-old OW (n = 5)/OB (n = 19, BMI ≥ 90(th) percentile) children were randomly allocated using computer-generated numbers (1:1, after stratification for weight status) to acute moderate physical or to sedentary activity for 30 min. Afterwards, all children were exposed to an acute social stressor. Children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires. At the end of the stressor, children were allowed to eat freely from a range of 12 different foods (6 sweet/6 salty; each of low/high caloric density). Energy balance, food intake/choice and obesity-related psychological risk factors were assessed. Lower overall energy balance (p = 0.019) and a decreased choice of low density salty foods (p < 0.001) in NW children compared with OW/OB children was found after acute moderate physical activity but not sedentary activity. Independent of their allocation, OW/OB children ate more high density salty foods (104 kcal (34 to 173), p = 0.004) following stress. They scored higher on impulsive behavior (p = 0.005), restrained eating (p < 0.001) and parental corporal punishment (p = 0.03), but these psychological factors were not related to stress-induced food intake/choice. Positive parenting tended to be related to lower intake of sweet high density food (-132 kcal, -277 to 2, p = 0.054). In the setting of stress, acute moderate physical activity can address energy balance in children, a benefit which is especially pronounced in the OW/OB. Positive parenting may act as a protective factor preventing stress-induced eating of comfort food. NCT01693926 The study was a pilot study of a project funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (CRSII3_147673).
    BMC Pediatrics 02/2015; 15(1):12. DOI:10.1186/s12887-015-0326-7 · 1.92 Impact Factor