Secreted miRNAs suppress atherogenesis.
ABSTRACT Endothelial-vascular smooth muscle cell communication has a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A study now demonstrates extracellular-vesicle-mediated transfer of the atheroprotective microRNAs miR-143/145 between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, providing compelling evidence that intercellular transport of miRNAs can influence a pathological process, namely atherosclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: The miR-143/145 cluster regulates VSMC specific gene expression, thus controlling differentiation, plasticity and contractile function, and promoting the VSMC phenotypic switch from a contractile/non-proliferative to a migrating/proliferative state. More recently increased miR-145 expression was observed in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques from symptomatic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the contribution of miR-143/145 during atherogenesis by generating mice lacking miR-143/145 on an Ldlr-deficient background. Ldlr-/- and Ldlr-/--miR-143/145-/- (DKO) were fed a Western diet (WD) for 16 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the lipid profile and the atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in both groups of mice. Absence of miR-143/145 significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and macrophage infiltration. Plasma total cholesterol levels were lower in DKO and FLPC analysis showed decreased cholesterol content in VLDL and LDL fractions. Interestingly miR-143/145 deficiency per se resulted in increased hepatic and vascular ABCA1 expression. Experiments with the luciferase coding sequence fused to the ABCA1 3'UTR, Western blotting, qRT-PCR and mimicMiR confirmed the direct regulation of ABCA1 expression by miR-145. In conclusion, miR-143/145 deficiency significantly reduces atherosclerosis in mice. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-145 might be useful for treating atherosclerotic vascular disease.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs are known to modulate cellular functions relevant to the normal and pathological physiology of the trabecular meshwork (TM) such as cell contraction and extracellular matrix turnover. There is also increasing evidence supporting the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, and their potential value as both biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. However, compared with other tissues, our current knowledge regarding the roles played by miRNAs in the TM is still very limited. Here, we review the information currently available about miRNAs in the TM and discuss the main challenges and opportunities to incorporate the rapid progress in miRNA biology to the understanding of the normal and pathological physiology of the TM, and to develop novel clinical applications for diagnosis and therapy of high intraocular pressure.Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2014; DOI:10.1089/jop.2013.0191 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic plaques are the main cause of life threatening clinical endpoints like myocardial infarction and stroke. To prevent these endpoints, the improved early diagnosis and treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic vascular lesions is essential. Although originally applied for anticancer treatment, recent advances have also showed the considerable potential of nanotechnology for atherosclerosis. Otherwise, one domain of laboratory medicine is the investigation of new biomarkers. Recent research activities have identified the usability of biomarker-targeted nanoparticles for molecular imaging and pharmacologic modification of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions leading to myocardial infarction or stroke. These investigations have established a new research interface between laboratory medicine, nanotechnology, cardiology/neurology, and radiology. In this review, we discuss inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms and biomarkers associated with a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Further, we will emphasize cardiovascular relevant functionalized nanoparticle biomarker constructs which were developed within the cooperation interface between Laboratory Medicine (anti-inflammatory biomarkers), Nano-Medicine (nanoparticle development), and Radiology (molecular imaging).Clinica Chimica Acta 07/2014; 437. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.06.029 · 2.76 Impact Factor