Secreted miRNAs suppress atherogenesis
Cardiovascular Institute and the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, 11-125 Translational Research Center, Philadelphia, Philadelphia 19104-5156, USA. Nature Cell Biology
(Impact Factor: 19.68).
02/2012; 14(3):233-5. DOI: 10.1038/ncb2452
Endothelial-vascular smooth muscle cell communication has a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A study now demonstrates extracellular-vesicle-mediated transfer of the atheroprotective microRNAs miR-143/145 between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, providing compelling evidence that intercellular transport of miRNAs can influence a pathological process, namely atherosclerosis.
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- "producing cells (Chairoungdua et al., 2010; Verweij et al., 2011) and may also be of importance in vivo (Al-Nedawi et al., 2009; Peinado et al., 2012). However, it does appear that microRNAs may be specifically transported into cells for specialized functions while the target cells seems to lack these microRNAs (Rader and Parmacek, 2012). "
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent cells that give rise to various cell types of the mesodermal germ layer. MSCs are of great interest in the field of regenerative medicine and cancer therapy because of their unique ability to home to damaged and cancerous tissue. These cells also regulate the immune response and contribute to reparative processes in different pathological conditions, including musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases. The use of MSCs for tissue repair was initially based on the hypothesis that these cells home to and differentiate within the injured tissue into specialized cells. However, it now appears that only a small proportion of transplanted MSCs actually integrate and survive in host tissues. Thus, the predominant mechanism by which MSCs participate in tissue repair seems to be related to their paracrine activity. Indeed, MSCs provide the microenvironment with a multitude of trophic and survival signals including growth factors and cytokines. Recent discoveries suggest that lipid microvesicles released by MSCs may also be important in the physiological function of these cells. Over the past few years the biological relevance of micro- and nano-vesicles released by cells in intercellular communication has been established. Alongside the conventional mediators of cell secretome, these sophisticated nanovesicles transfer proteins, lipids and, most importantly, various forms of RNAs to neighboring cells, thereby mediating a variety of biological responses. The physiological role of MSC-derived vesicles (MSC-MVs) is currently not well understood. Nevertheless, encouraging results indicate that MSC-MVs have similar protective and reparative properties as their cellular counterparts in tissue repair and possibly anti-cancer therapy. Thus, MSC-MVs represent a promising opportunity to develop novel cell-free therapy approaches that might overcome the obstacles and risks associated with the use of native or engineered stem cells.
Frontiers in Physiology 09/2012; 3:359. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00359 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MiRNAs are known to modulate cellular functions relevant to the normal and pathological physiology of the trabecular meshwork (TM) such as cell contraction and extracellular matrix turnover. There is also increasing evidence supporting the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, and their potential value as both biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. However, compared with other tissues, our current knowledge regarding the roles played by miRNAs in the TM is still very limited. Here, we review the information currently available about miRNAs in the TM and discuss the main challenges and opportunities to incorporate the rapid progress in miRNA biology to the understanding of the normal and pathological physiology of the TM, and to develop novel clinical applications for diagnosis and therapy of high intraocular pressure.
Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1089/jop.2013.0191 · 1.47 Impact Factor
Available from: Ruth Prassl
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ABSTRACT: Nanomedicine, a young and innovative field, offers interesting approaches for diagnosis and treatment in personalized medicine. Myocardial infarction and stroke belong to the most important challenges in this context because an improved early diagnosis of individuals well before fatal clinical endpoints occur is urgently needed. The underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke is atherosclerosis, a chronic immune-mediated inflammation of the vascular wall involving monocytes, macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and arterial wall cells. Hence, an immense number of pro-inflammatory mediators have been investigated in the context of nanomedicine and atherosclerosis but, interestingly, only few anti-inflammatory biomarkers. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory axis is always present as a negative feedback if a critical inflammatory perpetuation destabilizes atherosclerotic lesions. Hence, we could show that the immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory molecules, adiponectin and interleukin-10, are useful for molecular imaging of AS plaques. Based on recent publications in animal models of atherosclerosis, we strongly assume that the inflammatory “brake” mechanisms may represent an interesting new tool to specifically target the scenario of culprit AS-lesions. In this review article we discuss the potential of adiponectin, interleukin-10 and other anti-inflammatory active molecules like targeted liposomes and high dense lipoproteins towards this.
European Journal of Nanomedicine 06/2014; 6(2). DOI:10.1515/ejnm-2014-0011
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