Preoperative characteristics of high-Gleason disease predictive of favourable pathological and clinical outcomes at radical prostatectomy
ABSTRACT Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Men with high-risk prostate cancer experience recurrence, metastases and death at the highest rate in the prostate cancer population. Pathological stage at radical prostatectomy (RP) is the greatest predictor of recurrence and mortality in men with high-grade disease. Preoperative models predicting outcome after RP are skewed by the large proportion of men with low- and intermediate-risk features; there is a paucity of data about preoperative criteria to identify men with high-grade cancer who may benefit from RP. The present study adds comprehensive biopsy data from a large cohort of men with high-grade prostate cancer at biopsy. By adding biopsy parameters, e.g. number of high-grade cores and >50% involvement of any core, to traditional predictors of outcome (prostate-specific antigen concentration, clinical stage and Gleason sum), we can better inform men who present with high-grade prostate cancer as to their risk of favourable or unfavourable disease at RP.
• To investigate preoperative characteristics that distinguish favourable and unfavourable pathological and clinical outcomes in men with high biopsy Gleason sum (8-10) prostate cancer to better select men who will most benefit from radical prostatectomy (RP).
• The Institutional Review Board-approved institutional RP database (1982-2010) was analysed for men with high-Gleason prostate cancer on biopsy; 842 men were identified. • The 10-year biochemical-free (BFS), metastasis-free (MFS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method to verify favourable pathology as men with Gleason <8 at RP or ≤ pT3a compared with men with unfavourable pathology with Gleason 8-10 and pT3b or N1. • Preoperative characteristics were compared using appropriate comparative tests. • Logistic regression determined preoperative predictors of unfavourable pathology.
• There was favourable pathology in 656 (77.9%) men. The 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS were 31.0%, 60.9% and 74.8%, respectively. • In contrast, men with unfavourable pathological findings had significantly worse 10-year BFS, MFS and CSS, at 4.3%, 29.1% and 52.3%, respectively (all P < 0.001). • In multivariable logistic regression, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >10 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-3.62, P= 0.001), advanced clinical stage (≥ cT2b; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.55-4.21, P < 0.001), Gleason pattern 9 or 10 at biopsy (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.59-4.09, P < 0.001), increasing number of cores positive with high-grade cancer (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.34, P= 0.04) and >50% positive core involvement (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17-4.35, P= 0.015) were predictive of unfavourable pathology.
• Men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy are at high risk for biochemical recurrence, metastasis and death after RP; men with high Gleason sum and advanced pathological stage (pT3b or N1) have the worst prognosis. • Among men with high-Gleason sum at biopsy, a PSA concentration of >10 ng/mL, clinical stage ≥ T2b, Gleason pattern 9 or 10, increasing number of cores with high-grade cancer and >50% core involvement are predictive of unfavourable pathology.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among United States men. However, disease aggressiveness is varied, with low-grade disease often being indolent and high-grade cancer accounting for the greatest density of deaths. Outcomes are also disparate among men with high-grade prostate cancer, with upwards of 65% having disease recurrence even after primary treatment. Identification of men at risk for recurrence and elucidation of the molecular processes that drive their disease is paramount, as these men are the most likely to benefit from multimodal therapy. We previously showed that androgen-induced expression profiles in prostate development are reactivated in aggressive prostate cancers. Herein, we report the down-regulation of one such gene, Sparcl1, a secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) family matricellular protein, during invasive phases of prostate development and regeneration. We further demonstrate a parallel process in prostate cancer, with decreased expression of SPARCL1 in high-grade/metastatic prostate cancer. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that SPARCL1 loss increases the migratory and invasive properties of prostate cancer cells through Ras homolog gene family, member C (RHOC), a known mediator of metastatic progression. By using models incorporating clinicopathologic parameters to predict prostate cancer recurrence after treatment, we show that SPARCL1 loss is a significant, independent prognostic marker of disease progression. Thus, SPARCL1 is a potent regulator of cell migration/invasion and its loss is independently associated with prostate cancer recurrence.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(37):14977-14982. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1203525109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, androgen deprivation, and combined modality treatment. Specific outcomes of radical prostatectomy and combined modality treatment for high-risk prostate cancer are reviewed. The rationale for extended pelvic lymphadenectomy at the time of surgery is discussed, as is the role for surgery in the setting of node-positive, high-risk disease. There is not yet a biomarker that accurately identifies lethal prostate cancer, but rigorous clinical studies have identified methods of optimizing oncologic outcomes in high-risk men.Korean journal of urology 12/2012; 53(12):815-20. DOI:10.4111/kju.2012.53.12.815
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ABSTRACT: Among men treated with prostatectomy or radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer, the state of an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level is known as biochemical recurrence (BCR). BCR can be predictive of the development of subsequent distant metastases and ultimately death, but BCR often predates other signs of clinical progression by several years. Although patients may be concerned about their rising PSA levels, physicians attempting to address patient anxiety must inform them that BCR is not typically associated with imminent death from disease, and that the natural history of biochemical progression may be prolonged. Misinterpretation of the significance of early changes in PSA may cause patients to receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prematurely, especially in settings where the disease is unlikely to impact survival. In addition, knowledge of the morbidities associated with ADT (hot flashes, impotence, sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, bone loss, and increased risk of vascular disease) has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options for these patients. Clinical trials investigating when and how to best use and supplement hormonal therapies in this patient population are under way, as are trials of novel nonhormonal targeted agents, immunotherapies, natural products, and other pharmaceuticals that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for other indications. This review will summarize the acceptable standards of care for the management of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, and will also outline some novel experimental approaches for the treatment of this disease state.Clinical advances in hematology & oncology: H&O 01/2013; 11(1):14-23.