Enhancing the discovery of rare disease variants through hierarchical modeling
ABSTRACT Advances in next-generation sequencing technology are enabling researchers to capture a comprehensive picture of genomic variation across large numbers of individuals with unprecedented levels of efficiency. The main analytic challenge in disease mapping is how to mine the data for rare causal variants among a sea of neutral variation. To achieve this goal, investigators have proposed a number of methods that exploit biological knowledge. In this paper, I propose applying a Bayesian stochastic search variable selection algorithm in this context. My multivariate method is inspired by the combined multivariate and collapsing method. In this proposed method, however, I allow an arbitrary number of different sources of biological knowledge to inform the model as prior distributions in a two-level hierarchical model. This allows rare variants with similar prior distributions to share evidence of association. Using the 1000 Genomes Project single-nucleotide polymorphism data provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 17, I show that through biologically informative prior distributions, some power can be gained over noninformative prior distributions.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Gary K Chen, Jul 06, 2015
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ABSTRACT: We summarize the methodological contributions from Group 3 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 (GAW17). The overarching goal of these methods was the evaluation and enhancement of state-of-the-art approaches in integration of biological knowledge into association studies of rare variants. We found that methods loosely fell into three major categories: (1) hypothesis testing of index scores based on aggregating rare variants at the gene level, (2) variable selection techniques that incorporate biological prior information, and (3) novel approaches that integrate external (i.e., not provided by GAW17) prior information, such as pathway and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) annotations. Commonalities among the findings from these contributions are that gene-based analysis of rare variants is advantageous to single-SNP analysis and that the minor allele frequency threshold to identify rare variants may influence power and thus needs to be carefully considered. A consistent increase in power was also identified by considering only nonsynonymous SNPs in the analyses. Overall, we found that no single method had an appreciable advantage over the other methods. However, methods that carried out sensitivity analyses by comparing biologically informative to noninformative prior probabilities demonstrated that integrating biological knowledge into statistical analyses always, at the least, enabled subtle improvements in the performance of any statistical method applied to these simulated data. Although these statistical improvements reflect the simulation model assumed for GAW17, our hope is that the simulation models provide a reasonable representation of the underlying biology and that these methods can thus be of utility in real data.Genetic Epidemiology 01/2011; 35 Suppl 1(S1):S29-34. DOI:10.1002/gepi.20646 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The interest of the scientific community in investigating the impact of rare variants on complex traits has stimulated the development of novel statistical methodologies for association studies. The fact that many of the recently proposed methods for association studies suffer from low power to identify a genetic association motivates the incorporation of prior knowledge into statistical tests. In this article we propose a methodology to incorporate prior information into the region-based score test. Within our framework prior information is used to partition variants within a region into several groups, following which asymptotically independent group statistics are constructed and then combined into a global test statistic. Under the null hypothesis the distribution of our test statistic has lower degrees of freedom compared with those of the region-based score statistic. Theoretical power comparison, population genetics simulations and results from analysis of the GAW17 sequencing data set suggest that under some scenarios our method may perform as well as or outperform the score test and other competing methods. An approach which uses prior information to improve the power of the region-based score test is proposed. Theoretical power comparison, population genetics simulations and the results of GAW17 data analysis showed that for some scenarios power of our method is on the level with or higher than those of the score test and other methods.BMC Bioinformatics 01/2014; 15(1):24. DOI:10.1186/1471-2105-15-24 · 2.67 Impact Factor