Utility of Immunohistochemical Staining With FLI1, D2-40, CD31, and CD34 in the Diagnosis of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Related and Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Related Kaposi Sarcoma

Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.84). 03/2012; 136(3):301-4. DOI: 10.5858/arpa.2011-0213-OA
Source: PubMed


Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor frequently associated with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, advanced age, or iatrogenic immunosuppression. Immunohistochemistry for CD31 and CD34, and more recently for FLI1 and D2-40, has been used as ancillary diagnostic tests for KS, despite little information regarding the sensitivities and differential staining patterns of the latter 2 markers in the major clinical subtypes and histologic stages of KS.
This retrospective study aims to assess the prevalence of the vascular markers D2-40 and FLI1 in the main clinical subgroups and tumor stages of KS.
Twenty-four cases of KS (12 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related cases and 12 non-AIDS-related cases; 11 nodular-stage and 13 patch/plaque-stage KS) were stained for CD34, CD31, D2-40, and FLI1 by immunohistochemistry. The distribution of immunoreactivity was compared between the clinical subtypes and tumor stages of KS using the Mann-Whitney test.
CD31, CD34, D2-40, and FLI1 strongly and diffusely stained tumor cells in 75%, 92%, 67%, and 92% of AIDS-related cases and 58%, 92%, 67%, and 75% of non-AIDS-related cases, respectively. Differences in the proportions of positive cases between AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related cases did not reach statistical significance. No significant staining differences were observed between nodular- and patch/plaque-stage KS either.
There are no differences in the distribution of immunohistochemical reactivity for CD31, CD34, D2-40, or FLI1 between AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related KS or between nodular- and patch/plaque-stage KS. All of the markers studied demonstrated high sensitivity in both clinical settings and both stages of tumor progression.

16 Reads
  • Source
    • "Recently, it has been reported that immunohistochemical staining with D2-40, CD31 (a platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM1), CD34 (a hematopoietic progenitor cell surface protein), and FLI1 (Friend leukemia virus integration 1) is useful for distinguishing cutaneous KS from other diseases.24,38 D2-40 is a novel monoclonal antibody, directed against Mr 40000 O-linked sialoglycoprotein, which reacts with a fixation resistant epitope on the lymphatic endothelium.39 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer biomarkers have provided great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of early detection, diagnosis, and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a myriad of genes, proteins, or other molecular features. Biomarkers can facilitate the molecular definition of cancer, provide information about the course of cancer, and predict response to chemotherapy. They offer the hope of early detection as well as tracking disease progression and recurrence. Current progress in the characterization of molecular genetics of HIV-associated cancers may form the basis for improved patient stratification and future targeted or individualized therapies. Biomarker use for cancer staging and personalization of therapy at the time of diagnosis could improve patient care. This review focuses on the relevance of biomarkers in the most common HIV-associated malignancies, namely, Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer.
    07/2014; 6:11-20. DOI:10.4137/BIC.S15056
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A relatively large number of new endothelial markers that can assist in the diagnosis and classification of endothelial and vascular neoplasms have become available over the past few years. The expression of these markers, however, differs considerably among the various tumors. A selection of markers that have potential diagnostic utility or are of current interest among pathologists are reviewed and compared with some of the more traditional markers that have been employed in diagnostic pathology.
    Advances in anatomic pathology 09/2012; 19(5):281-95. DOI:10.1097/PAP.0b013e3182691c2a · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 11/2012; 136(11):1329. DOI:10.5858/arpa.2012-0153-LE · 2.84 Impact Factor
Show more