Calcineurin serves in the circadian output pathway to regulate the daily rhythm of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the retina

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4458, USA.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.26). 03/2012; 113(3):911-22. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.23419
Source: PubMed


The L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) in avian retinal cone photoreceptors are under circadian control, in which the protein expression of the α1 subunits and the current density are greater at night than during the day. Both Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Ras-phosphatidylionositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathways are part of the circadian output that regulate the L-VGCC rhythm, while cAMP-dependent signaling is further upstream of Ras to regulate the circadian outputs in photoreceptors. However, there are missing links between cAMP-dependent signaling and Ras in the circadian output regulation of L-VGCCs. In this study, we report that calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine (ser)/threonine (thr) phosphatase, participates in the circadian output pathway to regulate L-VGCCs through modulating both Ras-MAPK and Ras-PI3K-AKT signaling. The activity of calcineurin, but not its protein expression, was under circadian regulation. Application of a calcineurin inhibitor, FK-506 or cyclosporine A, reduced the L-VGCC current density at night with a corresponding decrease in L-VGCCα1D protein expression, but the circadian rhythm of L-VGCCα1D mRNA levels were not affected. Inhibition of calcineurin further reduced the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT (at thr 308) and inhibited the activation of Ras, but inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K signaling did not affect the circadian rhythm of calcineurin activity. However, inhibition of adenylate cyclase significantly dampened the circadian rhythm of calcineurin activity. These results suggest that calcineurin is upstream of MAPK and PI3K-AKT but downstream of cAMP in the circadian regulation of L-VGCCs.

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Available from: Gladys Ko, Jan 09, 2014
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    • "Retina tissue samples were collected and prepared as described previously [31]. Briefly, intact retinas were homogenized in a Tris lysis buffer including (in mM): 50 Tris, 1 EGTA, 150 NaCl, 1% Triton X-100, 1% í µí»½-mercaptoethanol, 50 NaF, and 1 Na 3 VO 4 ; pH 7.5. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ), high concentration of glucose (high-glucose), or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT). In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCC α 1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 07/2014; 2014(3-4). DOI:10.1155/2014/354094 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    • "We previously also demonstrated that calcineurin, a ser/thr phosphatase, regulates the L-VGCCs in a circadian phase-dependent manner, where inhibition of calcineurin dampens L-VGCC currents at night [45]. Rapamycin and FK506 are structurally related immunosuppressants that inhibit the lymphocyte-activation pathway through binding to FKBP12 [53–56]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the retina, the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are responsible for neurotransmitter release from photoreceptors and are under circadian regulation. Both the current densities and protein expression of L-VGCCs are significantly higher at night than during the day. However, the underlying mechanisms of circadian regulation of L-VGCCs in the retina are not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) signaling pathway participated in the circadian phase-dependent modulation of L-VGCCs. The activities of the mTOR cascade, from mTORC1 to its downstream targets, displayed circadian oscillations throughout the course of a day. Disruption of mTORC1 signaling dampened the L-VGCC current densities, as well as the protein expression of L-VGCCs at night. The decrease of L-VGCCs at night by mTORC1 inhibition was in part due to a reduction of L-VGCCα1 subunit translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Finally, we showed that mTORC1 was downstream of the phosphatidylionositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway. Taken together, mTORC1 signaling played a role in the circadian regulation of L-VGCCs, in part through regulation of ion channel trafficking and translocation, which brings to light a new functional role for mTORC1: the modulation of ion channel activities.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e73315. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073315 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endogenous circadian clock is a principal factor modulating memory across species. Determining the processes through which the circadian clock modulates memory formation is a key issue in understanding and identifying mechanisms to improve memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica to investigate circadian modulation of intermediate-term memory (ITM) and the mechanisms through which the circadian clock phase specifically suppresses memory using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible. We found that ITM, a temporally and mechanistically distinct form of memory, is rhythmically expressed under light-dark and constant conditions when induced by either massed or spaced training. Strong circadian regulation of ITM occurs with memory exhibited only by animals trained during the early subjective day; no apparent memory is expressed when training occurs during the late subjective day or night. Given the necessity of multiple persistent kinase cascades for ITM, we investigated whether protein phosphatase activity affected circadian modulation. Inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A blocked ITM when animals were trained during the early (subjective) day while resulting in phase-specific memory rescue when animals were trained late in the subjective day and early night. In contrast, inhibition of calcineurin did not block ITM when animals were trained during the early day and permitted ITM when animals were trained during the late subjective day, early evening, and throughout the night. These results demonstrate that levels of protein phosphatase activity are critical regulators of ITM and one mechanism through which the circadian clock regulates memory formation.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 03/2013; 33(10):4605-13. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4534-12.2013 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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