An improved flow cytometry-based natural killer cytotoxicity assay involving calcein AM staining of effector cells.
ABSTRACT Several flow cytometric methods for measuring natural killer cell activity have been developed. Commonly used protocols involve the staining of target cells with various fluorescent dyes. However, these protocols are not applicable to certain experimental settings. Therefore, we used Calcein AM (CAM), which has been reported to be the most suitable dye for use in target cell staining protocols, as a means of developing an improved flow cytometry-based NK cytotoxicity assay involving effector cell staining. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated by gradient density centrifugation and expanded NK cells were used as effector cells. Cytotoxicity against K562 cells and several hematologic cancer cell lines was measured by a flow cytometry-based method using CAM and propidium iodide. The new assay was compared with a standard (51)Cr release assay (CRA) in terms of its ability to measure the cytotoxicity of NK cells in PBMCs and expanded NK cells against K562 cells. The optimal concentration of CAM for staining effector cells was 0.05 μM, and CAM fluorescence intensity in effector cells was maintained for 4 hours. CAM staining had no significant effect on NK cell activity in human PBMCs or expanded NK cells. Comparison of the CRA and this new assay using K562 cells revealed a good correlation (PBMCs, r = 0.894; expanded NK cells, r = 0.887). Distinct separation between target tumor cells (Daudi, Raji, RPMI8226, U266, U937, and K562 cells) and CAM-stained PBMCs (E:T ratio, 12.5:1 to 50:1) or expanded NK cells (E:T ratio, 0.5 to 4:1) was observed after incubation for 1 or 4 hours. In summary, we successfully developed an effective flow cytometry-based assay for assessing the activity of NK cells in PBMCs and expanded NK cells against K562 cells and various types of hematologic cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: The structure of the natural dipyranocoumarin dipetalolactone has been confirmed by an unambiguous synthetic route from resorcinol. This sequence was initiated by a pyran ring formation step which introduced the 3-chloro-3-methylbut-1-yne moiety. Then, the expected product undergoes a Fremy's salt-meditated oxidative addition followed by ring closure to yield dipetalolactone. Dipetalolactone was also found to have immunological activity in a mouse carcinoma S180-bearing mice cell line.
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ABSTRACT: Although real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) system-based natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity has been introduced, it has not been evaluated using human blood samples. In present study, we measured flowcytometry based assay (FCA) and RT-CES based NK cytotoxicity and analyzed degranulation activity (CD107a) and cytokine production. In 98 healthy individuals, FCA with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at effector to target (E/T) ratio of 32 revealed 46.5 ± 2.6% cytolysis of K562 cells, and 23.5 ± 1.1% of NK cells showed increased degranulation. In RT-CES system, adherent NIH3T3 target cells were resistant to basal killing by PBMC or NK cells. NK cell activation by adding IL-2 demonstrated real-time dynamic killing activity, and lymphokine-activated PBMC (E/T ratio of 32) from 15 individuals showed 59.1 ± 6.2% cytotoxicity results after 4 hours incubation in RT-CES system. However, there was no significant correlation between FCA and RT-CES cytotoxicity. After K562 target cell stimulation, PBMC produced profound proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines/chemokines including IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1 α β , IFN- γ , and TNF- α , and cytokine/chemokine secretion was related to flowcytometry-based NK cytotoxicity. These data suggest that RT-CES and FCA differ in sensitivity, applicability and providing information, and further investigations are necessary in variable clinical conditions.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:210726.