The Pararectus approach for anterior intrapelvic management of acetabular fractures: an anatomical study and clinical evaluation.

University of Bern, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Inselspital, Bern 3010, Switzerland.
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume (Impact Factor: 2.69). 03/2012; 94(3):405-11. DOI: 10.1302/0301-620X.94B3.27801
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A new anterior intrapelvic approach for the surgical management of displaced acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate is described. In order to establish five 'windows' for instrumentation, the extraperitoneal space is entered along the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle. This is the so-called 'Pararectus' approach. The feasibility of safe dissection and optimal instrumentation of the pelvis was assessed in five cadavers (ten hemipelves) before implementation in a series of 20 patients with a mean age of 59 years (17 to 90), of whom 17 were male. The clinical evaluation was undertaken between December 2009 and December 2010. The quality of reduction was assessed with post-operative CT scans and the occurrence of intra-operative complications was noted. In cadavers, sufficient extraperitoneal access and safe instrumentation of the pelvis were accomplished. In the patients, there was a statistically significant improvement in the reduction of the fracture (pre- versus post-operative: mean step-off 3.3 mm (sd 2.6) vs 0.1 mm (sd 0.3), p < 0.001; and mean gap 11.5 mm (sd 6.5) vs 0.8 mm (sd 1.3), p < 0.001). Lesions to the peritoneum were noted in two patients and minor vascular damage was noted in a further two patients. Multi-directional screw placement and various plate configurations were feasible in cadavers without significant retraction of soft tissues. In the treatment of acetabular fractures predominantly involving the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate, the Pararectus approach allowed anatomical restoration with minimal morbidity related to the surgical access.

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    ABSTRACT: Since the 1960s the ilioinguinal approach by Letournel with the three anatomic windows has been successfully established for the treatment of acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column. The previous standard approach, the iliofemoral approach by Smith-Petersen, is still used for the therapy of anterior wall or isolated femoral head fractures. The increase in acetabular fractures in the elderly with lateral compression fractures after lateral falls, characterized by medial displacement of the quadrilateral plate and superomedial dome impaction, led to the use of the intrapelvic modified Stoppa approach with or without the first window of the ilioinguinal approach in the 1990s. To combine the advantages of the second and third windows of the ilioinguinal approach and the medial view of the modified Stoppa approach the Berne research group recently introduced the pararectus approach in acetabular surgery, which can be used as a less invasive acetabular surgical (LIAS) technique especially in the elderly.
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