Hip arthroscopy is particularly attractive in children as it confers advantages over arthrotomy or open surgery, such as shorter recovery time and earlier return to activity. Developments in surgical technique and arthroscopic instrumentation have enabled extension of arthroscopy of the hip to this age group. Potential challenges in paediatric and adolescent hip arthroscopy include variability in size, normal developmental change from childhood to adolescence, and conditions specific to children and adolescents and their various consequences. Treatable disorders include the sequelae of traumatic and sports-related hip joint injuries, Legg-Calve-Perthes' disease and slipped capital femoral epiphysis, and the arthritic and septic hip. Intra-articular abnormalities are rarely isolated and are often associated with underlying morphological changes. This review presents the current concepts of hip arthroscopy in the paediatric and adolescent patient, covering clinical assessment and investigation, indications and results of the experience to date, as well as technical challenges and future directions.
"The reduction and the fixation in a good position of the proximal epiphysis allows protecting the hip from impingement and osteoarthritis.43 Anyway, two other options can be discussed: performing an ISF associated with an offset procedure (bumpectomy) by a minimally invasive anterior approach or arthroscopy thus preventing the evolution towards hip impingement,44 or performing an ISF with a secondary per-trochanteric osteotomy.15 This final option, with all the anatomical modifications that it brings to the table, can make a potentially necessary future arthroplasty complicated. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SFCE) may lead to femoro acetabular impingement and long-term function impairment, depending on initial displacement and treatment. There are several therapeutic options which include in situ fixation (ISF). The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term functional and radiographic outcomes of patients with SFCE treated with ISF. We conducted a single-center, retrospective study evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of SCFE in situ fixation with a mean follow-up of 26 years (10-47). Analysis of preoperative and last follow up radiographs was performed. The functional status of the hip was evaluated according to the Oxford hip score-12 and the radiographic osteoarthritis stage was rated according to Tönnis classification. Signs of femoro acetabular impingement were sought. Ten patients (11 hips) were included. The average initial slip was 33.5° (10-62). At final follow up, the average Oxford hip score was 19.3 (12-37), it was good for groups who had a small initial slip (16.7) or moderate (17) and fair for the severe group (27). Average Tönnis grade was 1.3 (0-3). The average alpha angle was 65.3° (50-80°). Femoro acetabular impingement was likely in 100% of patients with severe slip, in 50% of patients with moderate slip and in 33% of patients with a slight slip. In situ fixation generated poor functional results, substantial hip osteoarthritis and potential femoro acetabular impingement in moderate to severe SCFE's. However, in cases with minor displacement, functional and radiographic results are satisfactory. The cut off seems to be around 30° slip angle, above which other treatment options should be considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over recent years hip arthroscopic surgery has
evolved into one of the most rapidly expanding fields in orthopaedic surgery.
Complications are largely transient and incidences between 0.5%
and 6.4% have been reported. However, major complications can and
do occur. This article analyses the reported complications and makes recommendations
based on the literature review and personal experience on how to
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recognition of the importance of femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) as a potential cause of hip pain has been stimulated by major efforts to salvage hip joints by reconstruction to prevent or delay the need for replacement. A previous review addressed the nature of FAI, the various types, and how to make the diagnosis. When FAI occurs, the structure between the femur and acetabular rim, the labrum, is initially impinged upon and subsequently injured.
Injury to the labrum should be recognized when treating the osseous causes of FAI. Preserving or recovering labral function, enhancing hip stability and protecting the articular surface, is critical to restoring the hip to normal or near-normal mechanical and physiologic function. The present review collected the varied essential information about the labrum in a succinct manner, independent of treatment algorithms.
Advanced knowledge of the labrum is presented, including the anatomy, circulation, histology, embryology, and neurology, as well as how the labrum tears, the types of tears, and how to make the diagnosis. The advantages and limitations of diagnostic magnetic resonance techniques are discussed, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), indirect magnetic resonance arthrography (i-MRA), and direct magnetic resonance arthrography (d-MRA). The review recognizes the complexity of the labrum and provides a greater understanding of how the labrum is capable of stabilizing the joint and protecting the articular surface of the hip. This information will act as a guide in developing treatment plans when treating FAI.
Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2012; 6(5):357-372. DOI:10.1007/s11832-012-0431-1
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