Probing principles of large-scale object representation: Category preference and location encoding.
ABSTRACT Knowledge about the principles that govern large-scale neural representations of objects is central to a systematic understanding of object recognition. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern classification to investigate two such candidate principles: category preference and location encoding. The former designates the preferential activation of distinct cortical regions by a specific category of objects. The latter refers to information about where in the visual field a particular object is located. Participants viewed exemplars of three object categories (faces, bodies, and scenes) that were presented left or right of fixation. The analysis of fMRI activation patterns revealed the following. Category-selective regions retained their preference to the same categories in a manner tolerant to changes in object location. However, category preference was not absolute: category-selective regions also contained location-tolerant information about nonpreferred categories. Furthermore, location information was present throughout high-level ventral visual cortex and was distributed systematically across the cortical surface. We found more location information in lateral-occipital cortex than in ventral-temporal cortex. Our results provide a systematic account of the extent to which the principles of category preference and location encoding determine the representation of objects in the high-level ventral visual cortex. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Neurons in inferotemporal cortex (area TE) of the monkey had visual receptive fields which were very large (greater than 10 by 10 degrees) and almost always included the fovea. Some extended well into both halves of the visual field, while others were confined to the ipsilateral or contralateral side. These neurons were differentially sensitive to several of the following dimensions of the stimulus: size and shape, color, orientation, and direction of movement.Science 01/1970; 166(3910):1303-6. · 31.03 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neurophysiology 02/1972; 35(1):96-111. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that some neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex respond selectively to highly specific complex objects. In the present study, we conducted the first systematic survey of the responses of IT neurons to both simple stimuli, such as edges and bars, and highly complex stimuli, such as models of flowers, snakes, hands, and faces. If a neuron responded to any of these stimuli, we attempted to isolate the critical stimulus features underlying the response. We found that many of the responsive neurons responded well to virtually every stimulus tested. The remaining, stimulus-selective cells were often selective along the dimensions of shape, color, or texture of a stimulus, and this selectivity was maintained throughout a large receptive field. Although most IT neurons do not appear to be "detectors" for complex objects, we did find a separate population of cells that responded selectively to faces. The responses of these cells were dependent on the configuration of specific face features, and their selectivity was maintained over changes in stimulus size and position. A particularly high incidence of such cells was found deep in the superior temporal sulcus. These results indicate that there may be specialized mechanisms for the analysis of faces in IT cortex.Journal of Neuroscience 09/1984; 4(8):2051-62. · 6.91 Impact Factor