Acute kidney injury: AKI in kidney transplant recipients--here to stay.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 7022, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.
Nature Reviews Nephrology (Impact Factor: 8.54). 02/2012; 8(4):198-9. DOI: 10.1038/nrneph.2012.40
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in the intensive care unit and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Based on the RIFLE criteria, AKI occurs in up to 67% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), with approximately 4% of critically ill patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). It is well known that this subset of AKI patients who require RRT have an in-hospital mortality rate exceeding 50%. However, long-term outcomes of survivors of AKI requiring RRT remain poorly described. Long-term mortality is greater in those patients who survived AKI when compared with critically ill patients without AKI. Long-term morbidity, renal and extrarenal, is a frequent and underappreciated complication of AKI. Among survivors of AKI at long-term follow-up (1-10 years), approximately 12.5% are dialysis dependent (wide range of 1%-64%, depending on the patient population) and 19% to 31% have chronic kidney disease. According to the United States Renal Data System, "acute tubular necrosis without recovery" as a cause of end-stage kidney disease increased from 1.2% in 1994 to 1998 to 1.7% in 1999 to 2003. The incidence will likely continue to rise with the aging population, increase in comorbidities, and expansion of intensive care unit capabilities. AKI is an underrecognized cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and patients who survive should be followed closely for new CKD and/or progression of underlying CKD.
    Advances in chronic kidney disease 08/2008; 15(3):297-307. DOI:10.1053/j.ackd.2008.04.009 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administrative and claims databases may be useful for the study of acute renal failure (ARF) and ARF that requires dialysis (ARF-D), but the validity of the corresponding diagnosis and procedure codes is unknown. The performance characteristics of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for ARF were assessed against serum creatinine-based definitions of ARF in 97,705 adult discharges from three Boston hospitals in 2004. For ARF-D, ICD-9-CM codes were compared with review of medical records in 150 patients with ARF-D and 150 control patients. As compared with a diagnostic standard of a 100% change in serum creatinine, ICD-9-CM codes for ARF had a sensitivity of 35.4%, specificity of 97.7%, positive predictive value of 47.9%, and negative predictive value of 96.1%. As compared with review of medical records, ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D had positive predictive value of 94.0% and negative predictive value of 90.0%. It is concluded that administrative databases may be a powerful tool for the study of ARF, although the low sensitivity of ARF codes is an important caveat. The excellent performance characteristics of ICD-9-CM codes for ARF-D suggest that administrative data sets may be particularly well suited for research endeavors that involve patients with ARF-D.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/2006; 17(6):1688-94. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2006010073 · 9.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury is an increasingly common and potentially catastrophic complication in hospitalized patients. Early observational studies from the 1980s and 1990s established the general epidemiologic features of acute kidney injury: the incidence, prognostic significance, and predisposing medical and surgical conditions. Recent multicenter observational cohorts and administrative databases have enhanced our understanding of the overall disease burden of acute kidney injury and trends in its epidemiology. An increasing number of clinical studies focusing on specific types of acute kidney injury (e.g., in the setting of intravenous contrast, sepsis, and major surgery) have provided further details into this heterogeneous syndrome. Despite our sophisticated understanding of the epidemiology and pathobiology of acute kidney injury, current prevention strategies are inadequate and current treatment options outside of renal replacement therapy are nonexistent. This failure to innovate may be due in part to a diagnostic approach that has stagnated for decades and continues to rely on markers of glomerular filtration (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) that are neither sensitive nor specific. There has been increasing interest in the identification and validation of novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury that may permit earlier and more accurate diagnosis. This review summarizes the major epidemiologic studies of acute kidney injury and efforts to modernize the approach to its diagnosis.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2008; 3(3):844-61. DOI:10.2215/CJN.05191107 · 4.61 Impact Factor