Persistent poor long-term prognosis of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients surviving invasive aspergillosis.
ABSTRACT Background Voriconazole treatment increases early survival of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis. We investigated whether this survival advantage translates into an increased long-term survival. DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective study involved all patients with an invasive aspergillosis diagnosis transplanted between September 1997 and December 2008, at the Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France. The primary end point was survival up to 36 months. Survival analysis before and after 12 weeks, as well as cumulative incidence analysis in a competing risk framework, were used to assess the effect of voriconazole treatment and other factors on mortality. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 42 received first-line voriconazole and 45 received another antifungal agent. Median survival time was 2.6 months and survival rate at 36 months was 18%. Overall, there was a significant difference in the survival rates of the two groups. Specifically, there was a dramatic difference in survival rates up to ten months post-aspergillosis diagnosis but no significant difference after this time. Over the first 36 months as a whole, no significant difference in survival rate was observed between the two groups. First-line voriconazole significantly reduced aspergillosis-attributable mortality. However, first-line voriconazole patients experienced a significantly higher probability of death from a non-aspergillosis-attributable cause. Conclusions Although the prognosis for invasive aspergillosis after stem cell transplantation has dramatically improved with the use of voriconazole, this major advance in care does not translate into increased long-term survival for these severely immunocompromised patients.
Article: Invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic cell transplantation: outcomes and prognostic factors associated with mortality.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading cause of infection-related mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The aim of this study was to determine the probability of survival and prognostic factors associated with outcomes over a long period of time. Cases of proven and probable IA diagnosed in HCT recipients at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center from 1 January 1990 through 31 December 2004 were included. Patient data were collected from a prospectively maintained database and by retrospective clinical chart review. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox regression models were used for multivariable analyses. Four hundred five cases were identified. The probability of survival at 90 days after diagnosis was higher for patients identified as having IA between 2002 and 2004 than for patients whose IA was diagnosed in preceding years (45% vs. 22%; P<.001). Risk factors independently associated with all-cause mortality include impairment in pulmonary function before HCT, receipt of human leukocyte antigen-mismatched stem cells, neutropenia, elevated bilirubin and creatinine levels, receipt of corticosteroids at > or =2 mg/kg per day, disseminated and proven IA, and IA occurring >40 days after HCT. Factors associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality included receipt of nonmyeloablative conditioning and peripheral blood stem cells. In a subanalysis of attributable mortality restricted to patients receiving antifungal therapy, receipt of voriconazole was independently associated with protection from IA-related death. There has been a significant decrease in mortality in patients with a diagnosis of IA following HCT in recent years, coinciding with multiple changes in transplantation practices, including use of nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens, receipt of peripheral blood stem cells, more prompt diagnosis of IA, and use of voriconazole.Clinical Infectious Diseases 03/2007; 44(4):531-40. · 9.15 Impact Factor