Group A rotavirus genotypes circulating prior to implementation of a National Immunization Program in Estonia
ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children ≤ 5 y worldwide which could be prevented with two recently introduced vaccines - monovalent Rotarix (live-attenuated G1P strain) and pentavalent RotaTeq (human-bovine reassortant containing serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P). Prior to implementation of vaccines into national immunization program we aimed to describe RVA genotype distribution in hospitalized children aged < 5 y in Estonia during 2007-2008. A total of 671 children with confirmed RVA gastroenteritis from three major pediatric hospitals were prospectively enrolled. G- and P-genotypes were detected from 124 stool samples by semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR. Severity of disease was assessed using Clark scoring system. The majority of cases (65%) occurred in infants aged 7 to 24 mo and were of moderate severity (mean Clark score 12.1 (SD 3.2)). The prevailing strain was G2P (34.7%), causing significantly more cases than G4P (12.9%), G1P or G9P (both 4.0%), G3P (1.6%). Yearly differences in genotype distribution occurred, as G2P (52.8%) dominated in 2007, but G4P (26.9%) in 2008. One third of strains remained non-typeable. The distribution of RVA genotypes in Estonia differs from that seen in other Central and Eastern European countries, although one should bear in mind the large proportion of P-untypeable strains and natural fluctuations of dominating RVA genotypes. Nevertheless, considering the high genotype-independent efficacy of the vaccines, introduction of national immunization should be considered.
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ABSTRACT: Rotavirus (RV) infections are worldwide in distribution causing high morbidity and mortality in human and animal neonates. Human settlements in close proximity of animals aids for genetic re-assortment of the virus by interspecies transmission and consequent emergence of new viral antigenic strain. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore RV incidence in a single approach from human and animal neonates sharing similar environment. Altogether, 200 diarrheal samples from children (50), piglets (80) and calves (70) were collected during the year of 2010-2012 from various locality, farms and hospitals, initially screened through monoclonal antibody based enzyme immunoassay followed by RNA-PAGE and VP7 gene amplification by Reverse transcription PCR. The overall prevalence of rotavirus was found to be 41.5 % (83/200) where maximum numbers of positive cases were found in piglets (46.3 %) followed by human (40 %) and cow (37.1 %). Majority of samples demonstrated characteristic group A rotavirus (RVA) electropherotype of 4:2:3:2 pattern. Moreover, RNA profiles of seven samples from piglets and calves revealed variation in the migration pattern of class II, III and class IV segments. The study, for the first time from the valley, detected 43.7 % of neonatal RVA positive cases from human and animal sharing similar setting. The variation in RNA migration pattern in seven cases signifies tentative cases of gene re-assortment that warrant further evaluation.Indian Journal of Virology 09/2013; 24(2):250-5. DOI:10.1007/s13337-013-0153-0 · 0.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Each year, rotavirus (RV) infection is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalisation and of nosocomially transmitted diseases in children younger than 5 years across Central European Vaccination Awareness Group (CEVAG) countries; however, inadequate surveillance systems and lack of routine RV testing still exist in most CEVAG countries, making it difficult to accurately assess the present burden of acute RV gastroenteritis in the younger population. Furthermore, routine immunisation of infants with RV vaccines has not been implemented, and no official and uniform recommendations exist in most of the countries in these territories. The present study provides CEVAG country-specific estimates of the disease burden of RV gastroenteritis among the youngest population and presents evidence-based advice on the use of RV vaccines in the region, while providing a framework for vaccination at the national level.Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 06/2013; 56(6):586-596. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e31828dc35d · 2.87 Impact Factor