Circulating EBV DNA and F-18-FDG PET scan in the diagnosis and monitoring of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Section of Basic Medicine, Department of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.97). 02/2012; 111(2):118-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfma.2011.05.006
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high rate of neck lymph node and/or distant metastasis. We evaluated the value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in staging NPC, especially in the detection of distant metastasis. A total of 95 patients, including 85 with primary and 10 with recurrent, NPC were enrolled. Dual-phase FDG-PET was used, in addition to the conventional workup. Eighty-one patients without distant metastases underwent repeat studies 3-4 months after initial radical treatment. Of 14 patients with distant metastases, all had lesions detected by FDG-PET, and the conventional workup detected the metastases in only 4. Two patients had false-positive MRI findings for neck node metastasis, but the FDG-PET findings were accurate. Four patients without distant metastases on their initial workup were found to have new lesions on FDG-PET 3-4 months after initial treatment. Patients with advanced node disease had a significantly greater incidence of distant metastases on FDG-PET, especially for N3 disease. Of the 95 patients, the FDG-PET results for distant metastasis were true positive in 14 patients, false positive in 8, and true negative in 73. None of our patients had a false-negative result. For a patient base, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for distant metastasis was 100% and 90.1% (95% confidence interval 81.5-95.6%), respectively, in this study. The accuracy was 91.6% (95% confidence interval 84.1-96.3%), the positive predictive value was 63.6 (95% confidence interval 40.7-82.8%), and the negative predictive value was 100%. FDG-PET stages N and M disease of NPC more accurately and sensitively than does the conventional workup. Patients with advanced node disease, particularly N3 disease, would benefit the most from FDG-PET.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 07/2005; 62(2):501-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.09.057 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the clinical significance of plasma concentrations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ninety-nine patients with biopsy-proven stage III or IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma and no evidence of metastasis (M0) received 10 weekly chemotherapy treatments followed by radiotherapy. Plasma samples from the patients were subjected to a real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay. EBV genotypes of paired samples from plasma and primary tumor were compared. Plasma EBV DNA was detectable before treatment in 94 of the 99 patients, but not in 40 healthy controls or 20 cured patients. The median concentrations of plasma EBV DNA were 681 copies per milliliter among 25 patients with stage III disease, 1703 copies per milliliter among 74 patients with stage IV disease, and 291,940 copies per milliliter among 19 control patients with distant metastasis (P<0.001). Patients with relapse had a significantly higher plasma EBV DNA concentration before treatment than those who did not have a relapse (median, 3035 vs. 1202 copies per milliliter; P=0.02). The consistent genotyping of EBV DNA between paired samples of plasma and primary tumor suggested that the circulating cell-free EBV DNA may originate from the primary tumor. Unlike the rebound of plasma EBV DNA concentrations in the patients who had a relapse, the plasma EBV DNA concentration was persistently low or undetectable in patients with a complete clinical remission. Overall survival (P<0.001) and relapse-free survival (P=0.02) were significantly lower among patients with pretreatment plasma EBV DNA concentrations of at least 1500 copies per milliliter than among those with concentrations of less than 1500 copies per milliliter. Patients with persistently detectable plasma EBV DNA had significantly worse overall survival (P<0.001) and relapse-free survival (P<0.001) than patients with undetectable EBV DNA one week after the completion of radiotherapy. Quantification of plasma EBV DNA is useful for monitoring patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and predicting the outcome of treatment.
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2004; 350(24):2461-2470. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa032260 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We prospectively compared PET/CT and conventional imaging for initial staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 111 patients with histologically proven NPC were investigated with PET/CT and conventional imaging (head-and-neck MRI, chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound, and bone scan) before treatment. The respective findings were reviewed independently and then compared with each other. With regard to T staging, PET/CT showed a discrepancy with head-and-neck MRI in 36 (32.4%) of the study subjects. With regard to N staging, PET/CT showed a discrepancy with head-and-neck MRI in 15 (13.5%) patients. Among the discordant cases, MRI was superior in demonstrating tumor involvement in the parapharyngeal space, skull base, intracranial area, sphenoid sinus, and retropharyngeal nodes while PET/CT was superior in demonstrating neck nodal metastasis. PET/CT disclosed 13 of 16 patients with distant malignancy compared with four patients disclosed by conventional imaging work-up. The false-positive rate of PET/CT was 18.8%. PET/CT correctly modified M staging in eight patients (7.2%) and disclosed a second primary lung malignancy in one patient (0.9%). In NPC patients, MRI appears to be superior to PET/CT for the assessment of locoregional invasion and retropharyngeal nodal metastasis. PET/CT is more accurate than MRI for determining cervical nodal metastasis and should be the better reference for the neck status. PET/CT has an acceptable diagnostic yield and a low false-positive rate for the detection of distant malignancy and can replace conventional work-up to this aim. PET/CT and head-and-neck MRI are suggested for the initial staging of NPC patients.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 09/2008; 36(1):12-22. DOI:10.1007/s00259-008-0918-7 · 5.38 Impact Factor