Ethyl pyruvate induces heme oxygenase-1 through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by depletion of glutathione in RAW 264.7 cells and improves survival in septic animals.
ABSTRACT We investigated the molecular mechanism by which ethyl pyruvate (EP) induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in RAW 264.7 cells and its effect on survival rate in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced wild-type (WT) and HO-1 knockout (HO-1(-/-)) septic mice.
EP induced HO-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was mediated through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling cascade in RAW 264.7 cells. EP significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of EP on LPS-stimulated iNOS expression and HMGB1 release was reversed by transfection with siHO-1RNA in RAW 264.7 cells, but EP failed to reduce them in HO-1(-/-) peritoneal macrophages treated with LPS. Moreover, treatment of cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-Et), SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), siHO-1, or p38-siRNA transfection inhibited anti-inflammatory effect of EP. Interestingly, both HO-1 induction and phosphorylation of p38 by EP were reversed by GSH-Et, and antioxidant redox element-luciferase activity by EP was reversed by SB203580 in LPS-activated cells. EP increased survival and decreased serum HMGB1 in CLP-WT mice, whereas it did not increase survival or decrease circulating HMGB1 in HO-1(-/-) CLP-mice. Innovation and
Our work provides new insights into the understanding the molecular mechanism by showing that EP induces HO-1 through a p38 MAPK- and NRF2-dependent pathway by decreasing GSH cellular levels. We conclude that EP inhibits proinflammatory response to LPS in macrophages and increases survival in CLP-induced septic mice by upregulation of HO-1 level, in which p38 MAPK and Nrf2 play an important role.
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ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a highly inducible and ubiquitous cellular enzyme that sub-serves cytoprotective responses to toxic insults, including inflammation and oxidative stress. In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis, brain HO-1 expression is increased, presumably reflecting an endogenous neuroprotective response against ongoing cellular injury. In contrast,we have found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the brain, which is also associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration, HO-1 expression is decreased, likely reflecting a unique role for HO-1 deficiency in neurodegeneration pathways activated by HIV infection. We have also shown that HO-1 expression is markedly suppressed by HIV replication in cultured macrophages, which represent the primary cellular reservoir for HIV in the brain. HO-1 deficiency is associated with release of neurotoxic levels of glutamate from both HIV-infected and immune-activated macrophages; this glutamate mediated neurotoxicity is suppressed by pharmacological induction of HO-1 expression in the macrophages.Thus, HO-1 induction could be a therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection against HIV infection and other neuroinflammatory brain diseases. Here, we review various stimuli and signaling pathways regulating HO-1 expression in macrophages, which could promote neuronal survival through HO-1-modulation ofendogenous antioxidant and immune modulatory pathways, thus limiting the oxidative stress that can promote HIV disease progression in the CNS. The use of pharmacological inducers of endogenous HO-1 expression as potential adjunctive neuroprotective therapeutics in HIV infection is also discussed.Current HIV Research 05/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.2174/1570162X12666140526122709
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ABSTRACT: Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a simple ester of pyruvic acid, has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory molecule under various pathological conditions, such as, during cerebral ischemia and sepsis in animal models. Here, the authors investigated the novel molecular mechanism underlying the anti-oxidative effect of EP in primary astrocyte cultures, particularly with respect to nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) induction. EP was found to induce Nrf2 translocation and the inductions of various genes downstream of Nrf2 and these resulted in the amelioration of the oxidative damage of H(2)O(2). Furthermore, EP dose-dependently suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced astrocyte cell death (12h preincubation with 5mM EP increased cell survival after 1h exposure to 100 μM H(2)O(2) from 32.6±0.7% to 63±1.8%). HO-1 was markedly induced (4.9-fold) in EP-treated primary astrocyte cultures and Nrf2 was found to translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus and bind to the antioxidant response element (ARE) located on HO-1 promoter after EP treatment. siRNA-mediated HO-1 or Nrf2 knockdown and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP)-mediated inhibition of HO-1 activity showed that Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction were responsible for the observed cytoprotective effect of EP, which was found to involve the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. Furthermore, EP-conditioned astrocyte culture media was found to have neuroprotective effects on primary neuronal cultures exposed to oxidative or excitotoxic stress, and this seemed to be mediated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and glutathione (GSH), which accumulated in EP-treated astrocyte culture media. Interestingly, we also found that in addition to HO-1, EP-induced Nrf2 activation increased the expressions of various anti-oxidant genes, including GST, NQO1, and GCLM. The study shows that EP-mediated Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction in astrocytes act via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms to confer protective effects.Neurochemistry International 04/2012; 61(1):89-99. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2012.04.005
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ABSTRACT: Background Based on an experimental brain stem death model, we demonstrated previously that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-interacting kinase 1/2 (MNK1/2) cascade plays a pro-life role in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients. The present study assessed the hypothesis that, in addition to ERK1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), the other two mammalian members of MAPKs that are originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases, are activated specifically by MAPK kinase 4 (MAP2K4) or MAP2K6 and play a pro-life role in RVLM during experimental brain stem death. We further delineated the participation of phosphorylating activating transcriptional factor-2 (ATF-2) and c-Jun, the classical transcription factor activated by JNK or p38MAPK, in this process. Results An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of Sprague–Dawley rats was used, alongside cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. Results from ELISA showed that whereas the total JNK, p38MAPK, MAP2K4 and MAP2K6 were not affected, augmented phosphorylation of JNK at Thr183 and Tyr185 and p38MAPK at Thr180 and Tyr182, accompanied by phosphorylation of their upstream activators MAP2K4 at Ser257 and Thr261 and MAP2K6 at Ser207 and Thr211 in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors ATF-2 at Thr71 and c-Jun at Ser73, rather than Elk-1 at Ser383 in RVLM were also augmented during the pro-life phase. Furthermore, pretreatment by microinjection into the bilateral RVLM of specific JNK inhibitors, JNK inhibitor I (100 pmol) or SP600125 (5 pmol), or specific p38MAPK inhibitors, p38MAPK inhibitor III (500 pmol) or SB203580 (2 nmol), exacerbated the depressor effect and blunted the augmented life-and-death signal exhibited during the pro-life phase. On the other hand, pretreatment with the negative control for JNK or p38MAPK inhibitor, JNK inhibitor I negative control (100 pmol) or SB202474 (2 nmol), was ineffective in the vehicle-controls and Mev-treatment groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that activation of JNK or p38MAPK in RVLM by their upstream activators MAP2K4 or MAP2K6 plays a preferential pro-life role by sustaining the central cardiovascular regulatory machinery during experimental brain stem death via phosphorylation and activation of nuclear transcription factor ATF-2 or c-Jun.Journal of Biomedical Science 11/2012; 19(1):96. DOI:10.1186/1423-0127-19-96