Comparison between stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in milk somatic cells and in mammary tissue of lactating dairy cows.
ABSTRACT Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, where it inserts a cis-double bond at the Δ9 position in a wide range of fatty acids. Investigating SCD expression in the bovine mammary gland generally requires invasive biopsy to obtain mammary tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of milk somatic cells as a non-invasive alternative to biopsy for measuring mammary SCD expression in dairy cows. Both milk somatic cells and mammary tissue were collected from 14 Holstein-Friesian cows and used for analysis of SCD expression by real-time PCR. The SCD5 mRNA levels in mammary tissue compared with SCD1 were low, and for several milk somatic cell samples, SCD5 expression was even below the limit of detection. A significant relationship was found between SCD1 expression in milk somatic cells and in mammary tissue. In addition, SCD1 expression in milk somatic cells was significantly related to Δ9-desaturase indices in milk, which are commonly used as an indicator of SCD1 activity within the mammary gland. Our study showed that milk somatic cells can be used as a source of mRNA to study SCD1 expression in dairy cows, offering a non-invasive alternative to mammary tissue samples obtained by biopsy.
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ABSTRACT: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the Δ9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD expression is scarce. We used a bovine mammary cell line (MAC-T) to assess the effect of acetic acid (Ac) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) in comparison with the effect of various long-chain fatty acids on the mRNA expression of the lipogenic enzymes SCD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and their associated gene regulatory proteins sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), insulin-induced gene 1 protein (INSIG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA)and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) by quantitative real-time PCR. MAC-T cells were treated for 12 h without FA additions (CON) or with either 5 mM Ac, 5 mM BHBA, a combination of 5 mM Ac + 5 mM BHBA, 100 μM C16:0, 100 μM C18:0, 100 μM C18:1 cis-9, 100 μM C18:1 trans-11, 100 μM C18:2 cis-9,12 or 100 μM C18:3 cis-9,12,15. Compared with control, mRNA expression of SCD1 was increased by Ac (+61%) and reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (-61%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-84%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-88%). In contrast to native bovine mammary gland tissue, MAC-T cells did not express SCD5. Expression of ACACA was increased by Ac (+44%) and reduced by C18:2 cis-9,12 (-48%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-49%). Compared with control, FASN expression was not significantly affected by the treatments. The mRNA level of SREBF1 was not affected by Ac or BHBA, but was reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (-44%), C18:1 trans-11 (-42%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-62%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-68%) compared with control. Expression of INSIG1 was downregulated by C18:0 (-37%), C18:1 cis-9 (-63%), C18:1 trans-11 (-53%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-81%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-91%). Both PPARA and PPARD expression were not significantly affected by the treatments. Our results show that Ac upregulated mRNA expression of SCD1 and ACACA in MAC-T cells. The opposite effect of the PUFA C18:2 cis-9,12 and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 on the these genes and the failure of Ac to mimic the PUFA-inhibited SREBF1 and INSIG1 mRNA expression, suggest that Ac can stimulate mammary lipogenesis via a transcriptional regulatory mechanism different from PUFA.animal 04/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Sterculia foetida oil (STO), and fish oil (FO) on milk yield and composition, milk FA profile, Δ(9)-desaturation activity, and mammary expression of 2 isoforms of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD-1 and SCD-5) in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (69 ± 13 d postpartum) were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. For the first 14 d of each period, cows received an abomasal infusion of (1) 406 g of a saturated fatty acid (SFA) supplement (112 g of 16:0 + 230 g of 18:0) used as a control (CTL), (2) 36 g of a CLA supplement (13.9 g of trans-10,cis-12 18:2) + 370 g of SFA, (3) 7 g of STO (3.1 g of 19:1 cyclo) + 399 g of SFA, or (4) 406 g of FO (55.2 g of cis-5,-8,-11,-14,-17 20:5 + 59.3 g of cis-4,-7,-10,-13,-16,-19 22:6). Infusions were followed by a 14-d washout interval. Compared with CTL, STO decreased milk yield from 38.0 to 33.0 kg/d, and increased milk fat concentration from 3.79 to 4.45%. Milk fat concentration was also decreased by CLA (2.23%) and FO (3.34%). Milk fat yield was not affected by STO (1,475 g/d) compared with CTL (1,431 g/d), but was decreased by CLA (774 g/d) and FO (1,186 g/d). Desaturase indices for 10:0, 12:0, and 20:0 were decreased, whereas the extent of desaturation of 14:0, 16:0, 17:0, and 18:0 was not affected by CLA treatment compared with CTL. Infusion of STO significantly decreased all calculated desaturase indices compared with CTL; the 14:0 index was reduced by 80.7%. Infusion of FO decreased the desaturase indices for 10:0, 14:0, 20:0, trans-11 18:1, and 18:0. The effect of FO on the 14:0 index indicates a decrease in apparent Δ(9)-desaturase activity of 30.2%. Compared with CTL, mammary mRNA abundance of SCD-1 was increased by STO (+30%) and decreased by CLA (-24%), whereas FO had no effect. No effect was observed on mRNA abundance of SCD-5. In conclusion, abomasal infusion of CLA, STO, and FO were shown to exhibit varying and distinct effects on desaturase indices, an indicator of apparent SCD activity, and mammary mRNA abundance of SCD-1.Journal of Dairy Science 07/2014; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of pasture fatty acid profile along the year on the Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) expression was evaluated over 5 months using 30 pluriparous goats, delivered in February. The animals had free access to pasture constituted by 60% Leguminosae and 40% Gramineae, and received 500 g/head/day of concentrate. From the second half of April, goats were milked twice a day for 5 months. Daily milk yield was recorded and, monthly, representative individual milk and pasture samples were analysed for chemical composition and fatty acid profile. The SCD expression was studied by extraction of mRNA from milk somatic cells and analyzed by RT-PCR. Average milk yield, fat and protein were 1420 (g/d), 4.45 (%) and 3.62 (%), respectively. Milk yield decreased along the lactation (P < 0.01) while milk fat was higher in August. Milk total CLA showed the highest levels (P < 0.01) in June and August (mg/100 g fat: 0.98 and 1.21, respectively) as consequence of the highest levels of pasture C18:2 and C18:3 in June (% of total FA: 34.1 and 42.7, respectively) and August (% of total FA: 42.7 and 46.3, respectively). The grazing season as well as lactation stage affected the SCD mRNA abundance determined from milk somatic cells with values (arbitrary units) that progressively decreased from April (1.95) until June (1.40), increased in July (1.70) and decreased again in August (0.83).Small Ruminant Research 07/2014; · 1.10 Impact Factor