The mechanism of OTUB1 inhibition of ubiquitination

Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 02/2012; 483(7391):618-22. DOI: 10.1038/nature10911
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Histones are ubiquitinated in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), promoting recruitment of repair proteins to chromatin. UBC13 (also known as UBE2N) is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) that heterodimerizes with UEV1A (also known as UBE2V1) and synthesizes K63-linked polyubiquitin (K63Ub) chains at DSB sites in concert with the ubiquitin ligase (E3), RNF168 (ref. 3). K63Ub synthesis is regulated in a non-canonical manner by the deubiquitinating enzyme, OTUB1 (OTU domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde-binding protein 1), which binds preferentially to the UBC13∼Ub thiolester. Residues amino-terminal to the OTU domain, which had been implicated in ubiquitin binding, are required for binding to UBC13∼Ub and inhibition of K63Ub synthesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies elucidating how OTUB1 inhibits UBC13 and other E2 enzymes. We unexpectedly find that OTUB1 binding to UBC13∼Ub is allosterically regulated by free ubiquitin, which binds to a second site in OTUB1 and increases its affinity for UBC13∼Ub, while at the same time disrupting interactions with UEV1A in a manner that depends on the OTUB1 N terminus. Crystal structures of an OTUB1-UBC13 complex and of OTUB1 bound to ubiquitin aldehyde and a chemical UBC13∼Ub conjugate show that binding of free ubiquitin to OTUB1 triggers conformational changes in the OTU domain and formation of a ubiquitin-binding helix in the N terminus, thus promoting binding of the conjugated donor ubiquitin in UBC13∼Ub to OTUB1. The donor ubiquitin thus cannot interact with the E2 enzyme, which has been shown to be important for ubiquitin transfer. The N-terminal helix of OTUB1 is positioned to interfere with UEV1A binding to UBC13, as well as with attack on the thiolester by an acceptor ubiquitin, thereby inhibiting K63Ub synthesis. OTUB1 binding also occludes the RING E3 binding site on UBC13, thus providing a further component of inhibition. The general features of the inhibition mechanism explain how OTUB1 inhibits other E2 enzymes in a non-catalytic manner.

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    • "The over expression of CK2α has been shown to increase the degradation of Ikaros protein (i.e., a tumor suppressor in ALL) via the ubiquitin pathway [3,32,33]. Interestingly in the t(12, 21)ALLs, not only CK2α is under expressed but OTUB1, a deubiquitinating enzyme, is found slightly over expressed (see Table 2, rank 12) [34]. OTUB1 hydrolase can specifically remove ‘Lys-48”-linked conjugated ubiquitin from proteins and plays an important regulatory role at the level of protein turnover by preventing degradation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Until now, the major prognostic factors for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), age, white blood cell count and chromosomal alterations are initially taken into account for the risk stratification of patients. In the light of protein marker studies to classify subtypes of Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia efficiently, we have compared the lymphoblastes proteome in Childhood ALL in accordance with the presence of t(12;21), indicator of good prognosis, usually. Methods Protein expression in pre-B2 lymphoblastic cells, collected from residual bone marrow cells after diagnostic procedures, was analyzed using two dimensional gel electrophoresis protocol. Protein spots whose average normalized volumes were statistically different in the two patients groups (n = 13; student t test p < 0.01), were excised. Tryptic peptides were then analyzed using a nano-LC1200 system coupled to a 6340 Ion Trap mass spectrometer equipped with a HPLC-chip cube interface. The tandem mass spectrometry peak lists extracted using the DataAnalysis program, were compared with the protein database Mascot Daemon. Results We focused on twelve spots corresponding to sixteen identified candidate proteins among the 26 found differentially expressed (p ≤ 0.05) regarding the presence of t(12;21). Among over expressed proteins, two proteins were implicated in cellular growth arrest (i.e. calponine 2, p ≤ 0.001 and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta, p ≤ 0.001) in accordance with good prognosis, while two other proteins favored cell cycle proliferation (i.e. methionine adenosyl transferase 2β, p ≤ 0.005 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleo-proteins A2 p ≤ 0.01) and could therefore be good marker candidates of aggressiveness. Level of expression of proteasome subunit beta type-2 (p ≤ 0.01) and protein casein kinase 2α (p ≤ 0.01) which both favored apoptosis, deubiquitinating enzyme OTUB1 (p ≤ 0.05) and MLL septin-like fusion protein MSF-B, septin 9 i4 (p ≤ 0.01) were in accord with a good prognosis related to t(12;21) lymphoblasts. Conclusion By drawing up the protein map of leukemic cells, these new data identified marker candidates of leukemic aggressiveness and new t(12;21) patients subgroups. These preliminary results will be in the near future confirmed by using a larger sample of pre-B2 childhood ALLs from national lymphoblastic cell collections.
    Clinical Proteomics 08/2014; 11(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1559-0275-11-31
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    • "Moreover, OTUB1 was found to antagonize SMAD2/3's ubiquitination independent of its catalytic activity as it interacts with E2 enzymes and inhibits efficient ubiquitin transfer from E2 to E3. This mechanism is reminiscent to the mechanism described in an earlier study on OTUB1-medi- ated inhibition of ubiquitination (Wiener et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) members are key cytokines that control embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis via transmembrane TGF-β type II (TβR II) and type I (TβRI) and serine/threonine kinases receptors. Aberrant activation of TGF-β signaling leads to diseases, including cancer. In advanced cancer, the TGF-β/SMAD pathway can act as an oncogenic factor driving tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and thus is considered to be a therapeutic target. The activity of TGF-β/SMAD pathway is known to be regulated by ubiquitination at multiple levels. As ubiquitination is reversible, emerging studies have uncovered key roles for ubiquitin-removals on TGF-β signaling components by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). In this paper, we summarize the latest findings on the DUBs that control the activity of the TGF-β signaling pathway. The regulatory roles of these DUBs as a driving force for cancer progression as well as their underlying working mechanisms are also discussed.
    Protein & Cell 04/2014; 5(7). DOI:10.1007/s13238-014-0058-8 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    • "The otubain family DUB OTUB1 negatively regulates DSB-dependent ubiquitination differently than these DUBs. OTUB1 interacts with UBC13 (UBE2N) and the UBE2D/UBE2E family E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and inhibits their E2 activities in a DUB activity-independent manner (Nakada et al., 2010; Sato et al., 2012; Wiener et al., 2012). Thus, DUBs have separate roles in the DDR, such as removing unnecessary ubiquitin after DNA repair and setting a threshold for ubiquitination . "
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    ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are deleterious lesions that lead to genetic mutations and cell death. Protein ubiquitination mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF8 within the regions surrounding DSBs recruits DNA DSB response (DDR) factors and induces chromatin remodeling, which supports cell survival after DNA damage. Nevertheless, the impact of RNF8-mediated ubiquitination on DNA repair remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that depletion of the deubiquitinating enzyme OTUB2 enhances RNF8-mediated ubiquitination in an early phase of the DDR and promotes faster DSB repair but suppresses homologous recombination. The rapid ubiquitination results in accelerated accumulation of 53BP1 and RAP80 at DSBs, which in turn protects DSB ends from resection in OTUB2-depleted cells. Mechanistically, OTUB2 suppresses RNF8-mediated L3MBTL1 ubiquitination and Lys 63-linked ubiquitin chain formation in a deubiquitinating activity-dependent manner. Thus, OTUB2 fine-tunes the speed of DSB-induced ubiquitination so that the appropriate DNA repair pathway is chosen.
    Molecular cell 02/2014; 53(4):617-30. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.01.030 · 14.02 Impact Factor
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