A sensitive yet robust analytical method is presented for the simultaneous determination of 12 human pharmaceuticals (valproic acid, phenytoin, ibuprofen, gabapentin, acetaminophen, gemfibrozil, naproxen, ketoprofen, secobarbital, phenobarbital, 5-fluorouracil, and diclofenac) and 6 antiseptics (biosol, biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-xylenol, chlorophene, and triclosan). The method employs solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by a novel pentafluorobenzylation using a mixture of acetontrile/water (1/1, v/v). The method is simple to perform (derivatization can be completed in a single test tube) and eliminates the need for any solvent/SPE cartridge drying or blow-down. It affords excellent resolution, high sensitivity and reproducibility, and freedom from interference even for matrices as complex as untreated sewage. The method was applied to the analysis of sewage samples using 15 isotopically labeled surrogates, which resulted in the detection of 10 of the 12 pharmaceuticals and all of the antiseptics sought. Ten of 15 surrogates were synthesized from pure analytes by a simple H-D exchange reaction employing D(2)O and D(2)SO(4). Measured recoveries were sensitive to matrix effects and varied substantially among analytes, indicative of the limitations associated with using a single surrogate standard.
"Although it is known to have 90e99% removal in WWTPs with activated sludge systems (Martín et al., 2012; Nakada et al., 2006; Radjenovi c et al., 2009), ibuprofen is still detected in the effluents at relatively high concentrations varying from 384 to 4000 ng/L (Lishman et al., 2006; Metcalfe et al., 2003). Naproxen has also been shown to have high removals in WWTPs (Bueno et al., 2012; Fernandez-Fontaina et al., 2012; Kasprzyk-Hordern et al., 2009; Yu et al., 2012), but it was still detected in the Grand River watershed. Unlike ibuprofen, naproxen was present at lower concentrations in the upper section of the study area. "
"A highly sensitive UPLC–MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of KTP in dialyzes from topical preparations has been published (Tettey-Amlalo and Kanfer, 2009). KTP has been determined simultaneously with other pharmaceuticals, from these we can mention GC-MS/MS for the analysis of KTP and other NSAID including IBP, and/or naproxen in waste water and environmental water samples, after derivatization (Hashim and Khan, 2011; Yu et al., 2012), GC- MS/MS in urine and blood samples (Azzouz and Ballesteros, 2012), the use of capillary electrochromatography coupled with UV or mass spectrometry in water samples (Hsu et al., 2011), GCtandem mass spectrometry in bovine milk (Dowling et al., 2008), HPLC for the simultaneous determination of KTP and mefenamic acid in tablets (Hung and Hwang, 2008), with IBP and other NSAID (Jedziniak et al., 2012) (Patrolecco et al., 2013). A simple new chemiluminescent method for the determination of IBP and KTP is described using the Fenton system in the presence of europium(iii) ions (Kaczmarek and Lis, 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the work was to establish a new, rapid and sensitive HPLC–DAD method for simultaneous
determination of three most commonly prescribed drugs; hyoscine, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen. The HPLC
separation of the analytes was performed on a hypersil - Gold C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 8 μm) column, using
gradient elution of the mobile phase composed of 0.01 M potassium phosphate dibasic containing 2 g/L heptane
sulphonic acid sodium salt maintained at pH 3.5 (Pump A) and acetonitrile 80% v/v (pump B) with a flow rate of
2 mL/min. The multiple wavelength detector was set at 210 nm for measurement of all compounds.
Quantification was based on measuring the peak areas. The three compounds were resolved with retention times
6.42 ± 0.009, 10.63 ± 0.006 and 16.43 ± 0.008 min for hyoscine, ketoprofen and ibuprofen, respectively.The
calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.64 – 96, 0.64 – 400 and 1.28 – 640 μg/mL for hyoscine,
ketoprofen and ibuprofen, respectively, all of them with coefficients of determination above 0.9995. The
methodology recoveries were higher than 95.0%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.11, 0.17 and 0.17 μg/mL
for hyoscine, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen, respectively. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less
than 2%. The method is accurate, sensitive and simple for quality control as well as for stability indicating
"[#97] Wastewaters (Stülten et al., 2008); treated wastewaters (Gros et al., 2012; Yu et al., 2012a); sewage sludge (Yu and Wu, 2012); fish (Lahti et al., 2012) Gabapentin [#20] Surface water (Ferrer and Thurman, 2012; Kasprzyk-Hordern et al., 2008); wastewater (Lai et al., 2011); surface water and drinking water (Morasch et al., 2010) Olanzapine (#195) Wastewaters and surface water (Bahr, 2009; Gracia-Lor et al., 2011) Quinine [n.a.] Acute toxicity hazard for children (Daughton, 2010a; references cited therein) Risperidone [#80] Fish (Fick et al., 2010); wastewaters (Bahr, 2009; Woldegiorgis et al., 2007) Trazodone [#37] Surface waters and wastewaters (Gros et al., 2012; Himmelsbach et al., 2006; Martínez Bueno et al., 2012) a Drug frequently prescribed for off-label indications and which has weak supporting evidence (Eguale et al., 2012). b Representative recent references documenting API occurrence in ambient waters, treated sewage effluent or sludge, sewage biosolids, or aquatic tissues. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prescribed use of pharmaceuticals can result in unintended, unwelcomed, and potentially adverse consequences for the environment and for those not initially targeted for treatment. Medication usage frequently results in the collateral introduction to the environment (via excretion and bathing) of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), bioactive metabolites, and reversible conjugates. Imprudent prescribing and non-compliant patient behavior drive the accumulation of unused medications, which pose major public health risks from diversion as well as risks for the environment from unsound disposal, such as flushing to sewers. The prescriber has the unique wherewithal to reduce each of these risks by modifying various aspects of the practice of prescribing. By incorporating consideration of the potential for adverse environmental impacts into the practice of prescribing, patient care also could possibly be improved and public health better protected.
Science of The Total Environment 11/2012; 443C:324-337. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.092 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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