Primary oligodendrocyte death does not elicit anti-CNS immunity.
ABSTRACT Anti-myelin immunity is commonly thought to drive multiple sclerosis, yet the initial trigger of this autoreactivity remains elusive. One of the proposed factors for initiating this disease is the primary death of oligodendrocytes. To specifically test such oligodendrocyte death as a trigger for anti-CNS immunity, we inducibly killed oligodendrocytes in an in vivo mouse model. Strong microglia-macrophage activation followed oligodendrocyte death, and myelin components in draining lymph nodes made CNS antigens available to lymphocytes. However, even conditions favoring autoimmunity-bystander activation, removal of regulatory T cells, presence of myelin-reactive T cells and application of demyelinating antibodies-did not result in the development of CNS inflammation after oligodendrocyte death. In addition, this lack of reactivity was not mediated by enhanced myelin-specific tolerance. Thus, in contrast with previously reported impairments of oligodendrocyte physiology, diffuse oligodendrocyte death alone or in conjunction with immune activation does not trigger anti-CNS immunity.
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ABSTRACT: After spinal cord injury (SCI) there is prolonged and dispersed oligodendrocyte cell death that is responsible for widespread demyelination. To regenerate this lost myelin, many investigators have transplanted myelin-producing cells as a treatment for contusive SCI. There are several documented examples of cellular transplantation improving function after injury, with the degree of myelin regeneration correlating with functional recovery. On the basis of these findings, remyelination is hypothesized to be a beneficial strategy to promote recovery after injury. As cellular transplantation is now entering clinical trials for treatment of SCI, it is important to dissect carefully whether accelerating remyelination after SCI is a valid clinical target. In this review we will discuss the consequences of demyelination and the potential benefits of remyelination as it relates to injury. Prolonged demyelination is hypothesized to enhance axonal vulnerability to degeneration, and is thereby thought to contribute to the axonal degeneration that underlies the permanent functional losses associated with SCI. Currently, strategies to promote remyelination after SCI are largely limited to cellular transplantation. This review discusses those strategies as well as new, and largely untested, modes of therapy that aim to coax endogenous cells residing adjacent to the injury site to differentiate in order to replace lost myelin.Progress in Neurobiology 01/2014; · 9.04 Impact Factor
- Biochimie 12/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
- Biochimie 01/2014; 98:135. · 3.14 Impact Factor