Primary oligodendrocyte death does not elicit anti-CNS immunity.
ABSTRACT Anti-myelin immunity is commonly thought to drive multiple sclerosis, yet the initial trigger of this autoreactivity remains elusive. One of the proposed factors for initiating this disease is the primary death of oligodendrocytes. To specifically test such oligodendrocyte death as a trigger for anti-CNS immunity, we inducibly killed oligodendrocytes in an in vivo mouse model. Strong microglia-macrophage activation followed oligodendrocyte death, and myelin components in draining lymph nodes made CNS antigens available to lymphocytes. However, even conditions favoring autoimmunity-bystander activation, removal of regulatory T cells, presence of myelin-reactive T cells and application of demyelinating antibodies-did not result in the development of CNS inflammation after oligodendrocyte death. In addition, this lack of reactivity was not mediated by enhanced myelin-specific tolerance. Thus, in contrast with previously reported impairments of oligodendrocyte physiology, diffuse oligodendrocyte death alone or in conjunction with immune activation does not trigger anti-CNS immunity.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Myelinating cells wrap axons with multilayered myelin sheaths for rapid impulse propagation. Dysfunctions of oligodendrocytes or Schwann cells are often associated with neuroinflammation, as observed in animal models of leukodystrophies and peripheral neuropathies, respectively. The neuroinflammatory response modulates the pathological changes, including demyelination and axonal injury, but also remyelination and repair. Here we discuss different immune mechanisms as well as factors released or exposed by myelinating glia in disease conditions. The spectrum of inflammatory mediators varies with different myelin disorders and has a major impact on the beneficial or detrimental role of immune cells in nervous system integrity.Biological Chemistry 08/2013; 394(12). DOI:10.1515/hsz-2013-0219 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocyte is a highly specialized glial cell type in the vertebrate central nervous system, which guarantees the long-distance transmission of action potential by producing myelin sheath wrapping adjacent axons. Disrupted myelin and oligodendrocytes are hallmarks of some devastating neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, although their contribution to neurodegeneration in a given disease is still controversial. However, accumulating evidence from clinical studies and genetic animal models implicates oligodendrocyte dysfunction as one of major events in the processes of initiation and progression of neurodegeneration. In this article, we will review recent progress in understanding non-traditional function of oligodendrocytes in neuronal support and protection independent of myelin sheath and its possible contribution to neurodegeneration. Oligodendrocytes play a pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases among which special emphasis is given to multiple system atrophy and Alzheimer's disease in this review.04/2013; 8(2). DOI:10.1007/s11515-013-1260-4
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ABSTRACT: Both immune-mediated and neurodegenerative processes play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is still considerable debate, however, on how to link these two seemingly unrelated elements in disease. It has also remained unclear how the immune system can be involved without harboring any obvious myelin-directed abnormality in MS patients. Here, we propose that the unique properties of a small heat shock protein, HSPB5, can help reconcile the role of the immune system with the neurodegenerative element in MS, and explain the absence of any peripheral immune abnormality in patients. By being selectively induced as a protective stress protein in oligodendrocytes, and subsequently triggering activation of nearby microglia, HSPB5 accumulation translates neurodegenerative signals into a local innate immune response. The immune-regulatory profile of HSPB5-activated microglia, as well as animal model data, indicate that the HSPB5-induced innate response is neuroprotective. However, the presence of pro-inflammatory HSPB5-reactive memory T cells in the human immune repertoire, a unique feature among mammals, can subvert this response. Recruited by the innate response, such T cells respond to the accumulation of HSPB5 by an adaptive immune response, dominated by IFN-γ production, that ultimately overwhelms the originally protective microglial response, and culminates in tissue damage. Thus, HSPB5 accumulation caused by neurodegeneration can provoke a destructive local adaptive response of an otherwise normal immune system. This scenario is fully consistent with known causative factors and the pathology of MS, and with the effects of various therapies. It also helps explain why MS develops only in humans.CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 05/2012; 11(5):556-69. DOI:10.2174/187152712801661293 · 2.70 Impact Factor