Non-traumatic anterior cruciate ligament abnormalities and their relationship to osteoarthritis using morphological grading and cartilage T2 relaxation times: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI).

Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA, 94107, USA.
Skeletal Radiology (Impact Factor: 1.74). 02/2012; 41(11):1435-43. DOI: 10.1007/s00256-012-1379-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to study anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) degeneration in relation to MRI-based morphological knee abnormalities and cartilage T(2) relaxation times in subjects with symptomatic osteoarthritis.
Two radiologists screened the right knee MRI of 304 randomly selected participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort with symptomatic OA, for ACL abnormalities. Of the 52 knees with abnormalities, 28 had mucoid degeneration, 12 had partially torn ACLs, and 12 had completely torn ACLs. Fifty-three randomly selected subjects with normal ACLs served as controls. Morphological knee abnormalities were graded using the WORMS score. Cartilage was segmented and compartment-specific T(2) values were calculated.
Compared to normal ACL knees, those with ACL abnormalities had a greater prevalence of, and more severe, cartilage, meniscal, bone marrow, subchondral cyst, and medial collateral ligament lesions (all p < 0.05). T(2) measurements did not significantly differ by ACL status.
ACL abnormalities were associated with more severe degenerative changes, likely because of greater joint instability. T2 measurements may not be well suited to assess advanced cartilage degeneration.

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    ABSTRACT: To review recent original research publications related to imaging of osteoarthritis and identify emerging trends and significant advances. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the PubMed database using the query terms "osteoarthritis" in combination with "imaging", "radiography", "MRI", "ultrasound", "computed tomography",and "nuclear medicine"; either published or in press between March 2012 and March 2013. Abstracts were reviewed to exclude review articles, case reports, and studies not focused on imaging using routine clinical imaging measures. Initial query yielded 932 references, which were reduced to 328 citations following the initial review. MRI (118 references) and radiography (129 refs) remain the primary imaging modalities in OA studies, with fewer reports using CT (35 refs) and ultrasound (23 refs). MRI parametric mapping techniques remain an active research area (33 refs) with growth in T2*- and T1rho mapping publications compared to prior years. Although the knee is the major joint studied (210 refs) there is interest in the hip (106 refs) and hand (29 refs). Imaging continues to focus on evaluation of cartilage (173 refs) and bone (119 refs). Imaging plays a major role in osteoarthritis research with publications continuing along traditional lines of investigation. Translational and clinical research application of compositional MRI techniques is becoming more common driven in part by the availability of T2 mapping data from the OAI. New imaging techniques continue to be developed with a goal of identifying methods with greater specificity and responsiveness to changes in the joint, and novel functional neuroimaging techniques to study central pain. Publications related to imaging of OA continue to be heavily focused on quantitative and semiquantitative MRI evaluation of the knee with increasing applicationof compositional MRI techniques in the hip.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 07/2013; · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate the expression and function of Mohawk (MKX) in human adult anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tissues and ligament cells from normal and osteoarthritis-affected knees. Methods. Knee joints were obtained at autopsy within 24-48 hours postmortem from 13 normal donors (age 36.9±11.0 years), 16 OA donors (age 79.7±11.4 years) and 8 old donors without OA (age 76.9±12.9 years). All cartilage surfaces were graded macroscopically. MKX expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. ACL-derived cells were used to study regulation of MKX expression by IL-1β. MKX was knocked down by siRNA to analyze function of MKX in extracellular matrix (ECM) production and differentiation in ACL-derived cells. Results. The expression of MKX was significantly decreased in ACL-derived cells from OA knees compared with normal knees. Consistent with this finding, immunohistochemistry showed that MKX positive cells were significantly reduced in ACL tissues from OA donors in particular in cells located in disorientated fibers. In ACL-derived cells, IL-1β strongly suppressed MKX gene expression and reduced ligament ECM genes, COL1A1 and TNXB. On the other hand, SOX9, chondrocyte master transcription factor, was up regulated by IL-1β treatment. Importantly, knock down of MKX expression by siRNA upregulated SOX9 expression in ACL-derived cells, whereas the expression of COL1A1 and TNXB were decreased. Conclusion. Reduced expression of MKX is a feature of degenerated ACL in OA-affected joints and this may be in part mediated by IL-1β. MKX appears necessary to maintain the tissue specific cellular differentiation status and ECM production in adult human tendons and ligaments. © 2013 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2013; · 7.48 Impact Factor


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