Silibinin inhibits the toxic aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide.
ABSTRACT In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), misfolded human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) forms amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets. These amyloid deposits contribute to the dysfunction of β-cells and the loss of β-cell mass in T2DM patients. Inhibition of hIAPP fibrillization has been regarded as a potential therapeutic approach for T2DM. Silibinin, a major active flavonoid extracted from herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been used for centuries to treat diabetes in Asia and Europe with unclear mechanisms. In this study, we tested whether silibinin has any effect on the amyloidogenicity of hIAPP. Our results provide first evidence that silibinin inhibits hIAPP fibrillization via suppressing the toxic oligomerization of hIAPP and enhances the viability of pancreatic β-cells, therefore silibinin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for T2DM.
- New England Journal of Medicine 07/1980; 302(23):1283-92. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Silymarin can be extracted from the milk thistle, and silibinin is the main component of the plant extract. Possibly due to their antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing properties, the compounds have been shown to protect different organs and cells against a number of insults. Thus liver, kidney, erythrocytes and platelets have been protected from the toxic effects of ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, cold ischemia and drugs, respectively. The effect of silibinin on endocrine and exocrine pancreas, however, has not been studied. We therefore investigated whether silibinin treatment attenuates cyclosporin A (CiA) toxicity on rat endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Groups of 15 male Wistar rats were treated for 8 days with CiA and/or silibinin. On day 9, endocrine and exocrine pancreatic functions were tested in vitro. At the end of the treatment period, blood glucose levels in vivo were significantly higher in rats treated with CiA while silibinin did not affect glucose levels. In vitro, insulin secretion was inhibited after treatment with silibinin, but amylase secretion was not affected. After treatment with CiA both insulin and amylase secretion were reduced. Silibinin and CiA had an additive inhibitory effect on insulin secretion, but silibinin attenuated CiA-induced inhibition of amylase secretion. Despite CiA treatment, amylase secretion was in fact restored to normal with the highest dose of silibinin. Thus silibinin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin release in vitro, while not affecting blood glucose concentration in vivo. This combination of effects could be useful in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, silibinin protects the exocrine pancreas from CiA toxicity. As this inhibitory effect is probably unspecific, silibinin may also protect the exocrine pancreas against other insult principles, such as alcohol.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/1998; 53(11-12):917-20. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic amyloid is formed by the aggregation of the 37-residue islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in type II diabetes patients and is cytotoxic. Pancreatic amyloid deposits are found in more than 95 % of type II diabetes patients and their formation is strongly associated with disease progression. IAPP amyloid forms via a conformational transition of soluble IAPP into aggregated beta-sheets. We recently identified IAPP(22-27) (NFGAIL) as a minimum length sequence sufficient to self-associate into beta-sheet-containing amyloid fibrils. Here, we have used the NFGAIL model of the IAPP amyloid core as a structural template to design non-amyloidogenic derivatives of amyloidogenic sequences of IAPP that are able to interact with the native sequences and inhibit amyloid formation. The design of the derivatives was based on a simple, structure-based minimalistic and selective N-methylation approach. Accordingly, a minimum number of two amide bonds on the same side of the beta-strand of the amyloid core was N-methylated. This was expected to eliminate the two intermolecular backbone NH to CO hydrogen bonds which are critical for the extension of the beta-sheet dimers into multimers and amyloid. Other beta-strand "contact sides" remained intact allowing for the derivatives to interact with the native sequences. Double N-methylated derivatives of amyloidogenic and cytotoxic partial IAPP sequences generated included F(N-Me)GA(N-Me)IL, NF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)IL, SNNF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)IL, and SNNF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)ILSS and were found to be devoid of beta-sheet structure, amyloidogenicity and cytotoxicity according to Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Congo red (CR) staining, electron microscopy (EM), and cell viability tests. The derivatives were able to interact with the native sequences and inhibit amyloid formation as shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), FT-IR and EM. Moreover, SNNF(N-Me)GA(N-Me)ILSS inhibited cytotoxicity of SNNFGAILSS and is thus the first reported inhibitor of IAPP amyloid formation and cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate the validity of the design approach for IAPP and suggest that it may find application in understanding the structural features of amyloid formation and in the development of inhibitors of amyloid formation and cytotoxicity of other amyloidogenic polypeptides as well.Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2002; 315(3):339-50. · 3.91 Impact Factor