Regulation of DNA-end resection by hnRNPU-like proteins promotes DNA double-strand break signaling and repair.
ABSTRACT DNA double-strand break (DSB) signaling and repair are critical for cell viability, and rely on highly coordinated pathways whose molecular organization is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like (hnRNPUL) proteins 1 and 2 play key roles in cellular responses to DSBs. We identify human hnRNPUL1 and -2 as binding partners for the DSB sensor complex MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and demonstrate that hnRNPUL1 and -2 are recruited to DNA damage in an interdependent manner that requires MRN. Moreover, we show that hnRNPUL1 and -2 stimulate DNA-end resection and promote ATR-dependent signaling and DSB repair by homologous recombination, thereby contributing to cell survival upon exposure to DSB-inducing agents. Finally, we establish that hnRNPUL1 and -2 function downstream of MRN and CtBP-interacting protein (CtIP) to promote recruitment of the BLM helicase to DNA breaks. Collectively, these results provide insights into how mammalian cells respond to DSBs.
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ABSTRACT: DNA chromosomal DSBs (double-strand breaks) are potentially hazardous DNA lesions, and their accurate repair is essential for the successful maintenance and propagation of genetic information. Two major pathways have evolved to repair DSBs: HR (homologous recombination) and NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Depending on the context in which the break is encountered, HR and NHEJ may either compete or co-operate to fix DSBs in eukaryotic cells. Defects in either pathway are strongly associated with human disease, including immunodeficiency and cancer predisposition. Here we review the current knowledge of how NHEJ and HR are controlled in somatic mammalian cells, and discuss the role of the chromatin context in regulating each pathway. We also review evidence for both co-operation and competition between the two pathways.Biochemical Journal 10/2009; 423(2):157-68. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into single-stranded DNA, triggering ATR-dependent checkpoint signalling and DSB repair by homologous recombination. Previous work has implicated the MRE11 complex in such DSB-processing events. Here, we show that the human CtIP (RBBP8) protein confers resistance to DSB-inducing agents and is recruited to DSBs exclusively in the S and G2 cell-cycle phases. Moreover, we reveal that CtIP is required for DSB resection, and thereby for recruitment of replication protein A (RPA) and the protein kinase ATR to DSBs, and for the ensuing ATR activation. Furthermore, we establish that CtIP physically and functionally interacts with the MRE11 complex, and that both CtIP and MRE11 are required for efficient homologous recombination. Finally, we reveal that CtIP has sequence homology with Sae2, which is involved in MRE11-dependent DSB processing in yeast. These findings establish evolutionarily conserved roles for CtIP-like proteins in controlling DSB resection, checkpoint signalling and homologous recombination.Nature 12/2007; 450(7169):509-14. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: When eukaryotic chromosomes undergo double strand breaks (DSBs), several evolutionarily conserved proteins, among which the MRX complex, are recruited to the break site, leading to checkpoint activation and DNA repair. The function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2 protein, which is known to work together with the MRX complex in meiotic DSB processing and in specific mitotic DSB repair events, is only beginning to be elucidated. Here we provide new insights into the role of Sae2 in mitotic DSB repair. We show that repair by single strand annealing of a single DSB, which is generated by the HO endonuclease between direct repeats, is defective both in the absence of Sae2 and in the presence of the hypomorphic rad50s allele altering the Rad50 subunit of MRX. Moreover, SAE2 overexpression partially suppresses the rad50s single strand annealing repair defects, suggesting that the latter might arise from defective MRX-Sae2 interactions. Finally, SAE2 deletion slows down resection of an HO-induced DSB and impairs DSB end bridging. Thus, Sae2 participates in DSB single strand annealing repair by ensuring both resection and intrachromosomal association of the broken ends.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2005; 280(46):38631-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor