Manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections in dairy cows.
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) are a major cause of mastitis on farms worldwide. Incidence and elimination rates are the key determinants of prevalence of Staph. aureus, and risk factors associated with these rates must be identified, prioritized, and controlled to obtain long-term reduction in prevalence. The objectives of this study were to identify manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staph. aureus IMI. A cohort of 90 Canadian dairy farms was recruited and followed in 2007 and 2008. Quarter milk samples were collected repeatedly from a selection of cows, and bacteriological culture was realized to assess incidence, elimination, and prevalence of Staph. aureus IMI. Practices used on farms were measured using direct observations and a validated questionnaire. A linear regression model was used to explore the relationship between herd IMI prevalence and incidence and elimination rates. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to compute measures of associations between practices used on farms and IMI incidence, elimination, and prevalence. The herd incidence rate was the most important predictor of herd IMI prevalence: a reduction of the incidence rate equivalent to its interquartile range (0.011 new IMI/quarter-month) was associated with a prevalence reduction of 2.2 percentage points; in comparison, an equivalent increase of the elimination rate by its interquartile range (0.36 eliminated IMI/quarter-month) resulted in a prevalence reduction of 0.4 percentage points. Postmilking teat disinfection and blanket dry-cow therapy were already implemented by most herds. Most of the practices associated with Staph. aureus IMI incidence were related to milking procedures. Among these, wearing gloves during milking showed desirable associations with IMI incidence, elimination, and prevalence. Similarly, adequate teat-end condition and use of premilking teat disinfection were associated with lower IMI incidence and prevalence. The initial herd prevalence of Staph. aureus IMI was positively associated with subsequent IMI incidence. This indicates that, in some situations, an initial reduction of the pool of infected quarters could be justified. Some housing practices were associated with IMI incidence, elimination, or prevalence. The effects of these latter practices, however, were often influenced by specific cow characteristics such as parity or days in milk. These results highlight the importance of good milking practices to prevent Staph. aureus IMI acquisition and, therefore, reduce their prevalence.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk can represent a potential threat to human health, due to the introduction of pathogenic strains into dairy food supply chain. The present study was performed to investigate the genetic variation among S. aureus strains isolated from bulk tank goat's milk. The virulence profiles were also assessed to link the isolates with the potential source of milk contamination. A population study was performed on 60 strains using distance-based methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the output was analyzed using Structure statistical software (University of Chicago; http://pritch.bsd.uchicago.edu/structure.html ). This Bayesian clustering model tool allows one to assign individuals into a population with no predefined structure. In order to assess partition of genetic variability among isolates, groups obtained by Structure were also investigated using analysis of molecular variance. S. aureus was recovered in 60 out of 78 samples (76.9%) collected from 26 farms. According to PFGE analysis, the strains were divided into 25 different pulsotypes and grouped into two main clusters. Restriction profiles, analyzed by Structure, allowed us to identify two distinct S. aureus genetic groups. Within each group, the strains showed a high coefficient of membership. A great part of genetic variability was attributable to within-groups variation. On the basis of the virulence profile, 45% of the isolates were linked to "animal" biovar, while 6.7% could be assigned to "human" biovar. Out of 60 strains, 27 were characterized by in vitro production of either enterotoxins A (5.0%), C (38.3%), or D (1.7%). The present study showed a high prevalence of bulk tank goat's milk contamination with S. aureus of animal origin. The presence in goat's milk of S. aureus strains able to produce enterotoxins and their potential introduction into dairy chain may represent a serious threat to human health.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 03/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 3M Petrifilm-based on-farm culture system for the detection of intramammary infection (IMI) in low somatic cell count (SCC) cows (<200,000cells/mL) at drying off. The main objectives were to determine the test characteristics and the predictive values of the Petrifilm on-farm culture system. The ability of dairy producers to correctly classify cows as infected or uninfected based on Petrifilm culture and a set colony count threshold was also assessed. A total of 360 cows originating from 16 low bulk tank SCC (<250,000cells/mL) dairy herds were enrolled at drying off. Enrolled cows had an expected dry period of 30-90 days, a SCC<200,000cells/mL on the last 3 tests prior to drying off, no clinical mastitis in the same time period, and no antibiotic treatment in the last 14 days. Quarter milk samples were collected on the day prior to drying off, and a composite milk sample was created by combining 5mL of milk from each quarter sample. Composite milk samples were cultured on-farm using the Petrifilm culture system, which provided results within 24h. Quarter milk samples were cultured in a reference laboratory, and the results were aggregated to the cow level. On the day of drying off, the Petrifilm was read by the producer and cows were classified as positive if ≥5 colonies (equivalent to 50 colony forming units/mL) were present. When read by the producer, 47.8% of the cows cultured negative on Petrifilm and were infused with only an internal teat sealant at drying off. The test characteristics of the Petrifilm on-farm culture system were calculated by comparing the producer-derived Petrifilm results to those obtained by standard laboratory culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the Petrifilm on-farm culture system were 85.2% (78.5-90.5) and 73.2% (66.4-79.3), respectively. The negative predictive value of the Petrifilm test system was high (86.6%) when estimated using the prevalence of IMI in this data set, and the positive predictive value was moderate (70.9%). An automated 3M Petrifilm reader was used to obtain accurate colony counts. The agreement between Petrifilm results obtained by the producer and those obtained by the automated Petrifilm reader was high, with a kappa value of 0.82 (0.75-0.89).Preventive Veterinary Medicine 04/2013; · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bovine mastitis is the primary disease of dairy cattle worldwide and it causes huge economic losses. Among several microorganisms that are the causative agents of this disease, S. aureus is the most prevalent. Although antibiotic therapy is still the most widely used procedure for the treatment of bovine mastitis, alternative means of treatment are necessary due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk, which is a growing concern because of its interference with the production of milk derivatives and the selection of resistant bacterial strains. The use of bacteriophages as a tool for the control of pathogens is an alternative treatment to antibiotic therapy. In this work, to obtain phages with the potential for use in phage therapy as a treatment for mastitis, we isolated and identified the bacteria from the milk of mastitis-positive cows. A total of 19% of the animals from small and medium farms of the Zona da Mata Mineira, Brazil was positive for bovine mastitis, and bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus were the most prevalent pathogens. The majority of the S. aureus isolates tested was resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. In parallel, we isolated 10 bacteriophages able to infect some of these S. aureus isolates. We determined that these phages contained DNA genomes of approximately 175 kb in length, and the protein profiles indicated the presence of four major proteins. Electron microscopy revealed that the phages are caudate and belong to the Myoviridae family. The isolates exhibited interesting features for their use in phage therapy such as a high lytic potential, a wide range of hosts and thermostability, all of which favor their use in the field.Journal of Animal Science 07/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor