Role of Iron Deficiency and Anemia in Cardio-Renal Syndromes
ABSTRACT Chronic heart failure is a common disorder associated with unacceptably high mortality rates. Chronic renal disease and anemia are two important comorbidities that significantly influence morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Progress in CHF again may cause worsening of kidney function and anemia. To describe this vicious cycle, the term cardio-renal anemia syndrome has been suggested. Iron deficiency is part of the pathophysiology of anemia in both CHF and chronic kidney disease, which makes it an interesting target for treatment of anemia in cardio-renal anemia syndrome. Recently, studies have highlighted the potential clinical benefits of treating iron deficiency in patients with CHF, even if these patients are nonanemic. This article summarizes studies investigating the influence of iron deficiency with or without anemia in chronic kidney disease and CHF and gives an overview of preparations of intravenous iron currently available.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Anemia is a major complication of end stage renal disease. The anemia is mainly the result of impaired formation of erythrocytes due to lack of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Compelling evidence, however, points to the contribution of accelerated erythrocyte death, which decreases the life span of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i). Erythrocytes could be sensitized to cytosolic Ca(2+) by ceramide. In end stage renal disease, eryptosis may possibly be stimulated by uremic toxins. The present study explored, whether the uremic toxin acrolein could trigger eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin-V-binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. Results: A 48 h exposure to acrolein (30 － 50 µM) did not significantly modify [Ca(2+)]i but significantly decreased forward scatter and increased annexin-V-binding. Acrolein further triggered slight, but significant hemolysis and increased ceramide formation in erythrocytes. Acrolein (50 µM) induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Acrolein augmented the annexin-V-binding following treatment with Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 µM). Conclusion: Acrolein stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of ceramide formation with subsequent sensitisation of the erythrocytes to cytosolic Ca(2+).Kidney and Blood Pressure Research 05/2013; 37(2-3):158-167. DOI:10.1159/000350141 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is enriched with many active ingredients. TFG oil was evaluated for its protective effect against deltamethrin toxicity in rats. Rats of the control group were administered saline. The 2nd group was administered deltamethrin (DLM) orally at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass. The 3rd and 4th groups were administered DLM at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass and were fed diets containing 2.5% and 5% TFG oil, respectively. DLM intoxication reduced red blood cell and platelet counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit value while it induced leucocytosis. Furthermore, it increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, and creatinine; increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation; decreased serum acetylcholine esterase level; and decreased hepatic, renal, and brain antioxidant markers' activities. However, TFG oil kept the studied hematological and biochemical parameters within normal ranges. In addition, it prevented lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by DLM intoxication in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, these results indicated that TFG oil inhibited the toxic effects of DLM on hematological and biochemical parameters as well as oxidative status by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities, and it appeared to be a promising protective agent against DLM-induced toxicity.Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 06/2014; DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2014-0144 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) results mainly from erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Anemia could be confounded, however, by accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes because of premature suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), oxidative stress, and ceramide. The present study explored whether and how ESRD influences eryptosis. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers (n = 20) as well as ESRD patients (n = 20) prior to and after hemodialysis. Phosphatidylserine exposure was estimated from annexin V binding, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS) from 2',7'dichlorodihydrofluorescein fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody binding in flow cytometry. Measurements were made in erythrocytes from freshly drawn blood and in erythrocytes from healthy volunteers exposed in vitro for 24 h to plasma from healthy volunteers or ESRD patients prior to and following dialysis. The patients suffered from anemia (hemoglobin 10.1 ± 0.5 g/100 ml) despite 1.96 ± 0.34 % reticulocytes. The percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes was significantly higher in ESRD patients (0.84 ± 0.09 %) than in healthy volunteers (0.43 ± 0.04 %) and was significantly increased immediately after dialysis (1.35 ± 0.13 %). The increase in phosphatidylserine exposure was paralleled by increase in [Ca(2+)]i, oxidative stress, and ceramide abundance. As compared to addition of plasma from healthy individuals, addition of predialytic but not of postdialytic plasma from ESRD patients increased phosphatidylserine exposure, [Ca(2+)]i, ROS, and ceramide abundance. In conclusion, both, dialyzable components of uremic plasma and dialysis procedure, trigger eryptosis at least in part by increasing erythrocyte [Ca(2+)]i, ROS, and ceramide formation. Anemia in uremia results in part from eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death. Eryptosis in uremia is triggered in part by a dialyzable plasma component. Eryptosis in uremia is further triggered by dialysis procedure. Eryptosis in uremia is in part due to increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Eryptosis in uremia is further due to oxidative stress and ceramide formation.Journal of Molecular Medicine 04/2014; 92(8). DOI:10.1007/s00109-014-1151-4 · 4.74 Impact Factor