Nuts and seed: A natural yet dangerous foreign body

University of São Paulo, Laboratorio de Investigações Médicas, Number 40, São Paulo, Brazil.
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology (Impact Factor: 1.19). 02/2012; 76 Suppl 1:S49-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.02.012
Source: PubMed


This paper has the object to present the impact of nuts' and seeds' injuries withdrawing data from the Susy Safe registry, highlighting that as for other foreign bodies the main item efficiently and substantially susceptible to changes to decrease the accidents' rates is the education of adults and children, that can be shared with parents both from pediatricians and general practitioners. Indeed labeling and age related warnings have also a fundamental relevance in prevention.
The present study draws its data from the Susy Safe registry. Details on injuries are entered in the Susy Safe Web-registry through a standardized case report form, that includes information regarding: children age and gender, features of the object, circumstances of injury (presence of parents and activity) and hospitalization's details (lasting, complications and removal details). Cases are prospectively collected using the Susy Safe system from 06/2005; moreover, also information regarding past consecutive cases available in each centre adhering to the project have been entered in the Susy Safe registry.
Nuts and seeds are one of the most common food item retrieved in foreign bodies injuries in children. In Susy Safe registry they represent the 38% in food group, and almost the 10% in general cases. Trachea, bronchi and lungs were the main location of FB's retrieval, showing an incidence of 68%. Hospitalization occurred in 83% of cases, showing the major frequency for foreign bodies located in trachea. This location was also the principal site of complications, with a frequency of 68%. There were no significant associations between these outcomes and the age class of the children. The most common complications seen (22.4%) was bronchitis, followed by pneumonia (19.7%). Adult presence was recorded as positive in 71.2% of cases, showing an association (p value 0.009) between the adult supervision and the hospitalization outcome. On the contrary there was a non significant association between adult presence and the occurrence of complications. In 80.7% of cases, the incident happened while the child was eating. Among those cases, 88.6% interested trachea, lungs and bronchi.
Food-related aspiration injuries are common events for young children, particularly under 4 years of age, and may lead to severe complication. There is a need to study in more depth specific characteristics of foreign bodies associated with increased hazard, such as size, shape, hardness or firmness, lubricity, pliability and elasticity, in order to better identify risky foods, and more precisely described the pathogenetic pathway. Parents are not adequately conscious and aware toward this risk; therefore, the number and severity of the injuries could be reduced by educating parents and children. Information about food safety should be included in all visits to pediatricians in order to make parents able to understand, select, and identify key characteristics of hazardous foods and better control the hazard level of various foods. Finally, preventive measures including warning labels on high-risk foods could be implemented.

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    • "Unsurprisingly , peanuts are the leading FB. Many peanuts can be aspirated at once [21]. Sometimes, iterative bronchoscopies should be performed to remove residual fragments [14] [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, radiological and endoscopic characteristics of pediatric foreign body aspiration in Algeria. In this retrospective study, the results of 2624 children younger than 18 years admitted in our department for respiratory foreign body removal between 1989 and 2012, were presented. Most of them had an ambulatory rigid bronchoscopy. The children (62.34% males and 37.65% females) were aged 4 months to 18 years with 66% between 1 and 3 years. Choking was related in 65% of cases. The delay between aspiration and removal was 2-8 days in 65.8% and within 24h in 9.2%. In the most cases, the children arrived with cough, laryngeal or bronchial signs and unilateral reduction of vesicular murmur. The examination was normal in 13%. The most common radiologic finding was pulmonary air trapping (40.7%). The aspirated bodies were organic in 66.7%, dominated by peanuts, while sunflower seeds, beans and ears of wheat were the most dangerous. In the other cases, they were metallic or plastic as pen caps and recently scarf pins. The endoscopic removal by rigid bronchoscopy was successful and complete in 97%. Cases with extraction failure (3%) limited to certain FBs, all of them inorganic were assigned to surgery. The complications related to the endoscopic procedure were 0.29% with a mortality of 0.26%. Foreign body aspiration is a real public health problem in Algeria. The best way to manage it is an early diagnosis and a rigid bronchoscopy removal under general anesthesia used by fully trained staff. The prevention of this domestic accident should consider the population lifestyle and cultural habits to be more effective.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 08/2013; 77(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.07.026 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate parents' knowledge regarding foreign body aspiration (FBA) and determine the factors that are associated with lack of knowledge. Methods: An 8-item questionnaire regarding knowledge of FBA was developed and distributed at regular check-ups for children younger than 24 months old. Results: Out of the 1766 questionnaires distributed, 1603 were recovered and most of them (1539) were answered by mothers. After omitting 49 questionnaires with incomplete data, 1490 questionnaires answered by mothers were analyzed. Only 4.3% [95% CI 3.3-5.3] of mothers did not recognize a small toy as a cause of FBA, while 20.2% [95% CI 18.2-22.2] did not know that peanuts and other nuts can be causes of FBA, and 48.1% [95% CI 45.5-50.6] did not know that they should not give peanuts to a child younger than 3 years old. Regarding clinical signs, 27.7% [95% CI 25.4-30.0] and 41.8% [95% CI 39.3-44.3] of mothers did not know that sudden choking and sudden coughing were symptoms suggesting FBA, respectively. Being a mother with a child younger than 12 months old and being a mother with a first child were independent risk factors for lack of knowledge about FBA, regardless of the age of the mother. Conclusions: A substantial number of mothers lack knowledge regarding FBA. To prevent FBA and to make timely diagnoses, parents, especially mothers with children younger than 12 months old and mothers with a first child should be given adequate information.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 10/2012; 77(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.09.026 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspiration of foreign bodies is an important and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. The early diagnosis and treatment are essential for risk of mortality in the acute and complications arising from the continuance of a foreign body in the airway. The clinical presentation may mimic different diseases, delaying the correct diagnosis. Pediatricians should be aware of the possibility of foreign body in children with persistent respiratory symptoms, even in the absence of a history of choking. Bronchoscopy is indicated in all patients with suspected aspiration, even when the physical and radiological examination is inconclusive. We evaluate in 90 cases the time between the aspiration of foreign body and the removal, and emphasize the need for preventive measures and greater dissemination of knowledge in the community and health professionals about this problem.
    Archivos argentinos de pediatría 06/2013; 111(3):e69-73. DOI:10.1590/S0325-00752013000300015 · 0.37 Impact Factor
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