Facing depression with botulinum toxin: A randomized controlled trial

Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Wilhelm-Klein-Str 27, 4012 Basel, Switzerland.
Journal of Psychiatric Research (Impact Factor: 4.09). 02/2012; 46(5):574-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.01.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Positive effects on mood have been observed in subjects who underwent treatment of glabellar frown lines with botulinum toxin and, in an open case series, depression remitted or improved after such treatment. Using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial design we assessed botulinum toxin injection to the glabellar region as an adjunctive treatment of major depression. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to a verum (onabotulinumtoxinA, n = 15) or placebo (saline, n = 15) group. The primary end point was change in the 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale six weeks after treatment compared to baseline. The verum and the placebo groups did not differ significantly in any of the collected baseline characteristics. Throughout the sixteen-week follow-up period there was a significant improvement in depressive symptoms in the verum group compared to the placebo group as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (F((6,168)) = 5.76, p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.17). Six weeks after a single treatment scores of onabotulinumtoxinA recipients were reduced on average by 47.1% and by 9.2% in placebo-treated participants (F((1,28)) = 12.30, p = 0.002, η(2) = 0.31, d = 1.28). The effect size was even larger at the end of the study (d = 1.80). Treatment-dependent clinical improvement was also reflected in the Beck Depression Inventory, and in the Clinical Global Impressions Scale. This study shows that a single treatment of the glabellar region with botulinum toxin may shortly accomplish a strong and sustained alleviation of depression in patients, who did not improve sufficiently on previous medication. It supports the concept, that the facial musculature not only expresses, but also regulates mood states.

Download full-text


Available from: Nadeem Kalak, Jun 22, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research shows that pacifiers disrupt infants’ mimicry of facial expressions. This experiment examines whether pacifiers interfere with caretakers’ ability to mimic infants’ emotions. Adults saw photographs of infants with or without a pacifier. When infants had pacifiers, perceivers showed reduced EMG activity to infants’ smiles. Smiles of infants using a pacifier were also rated as less happy than smiles depicted without a pacifier. The same pattern was observed for expressions of distress: adults rated infants presented with pacifiers as less sad than infants without pacifiers. We discuss deleterious effects of pacifier use for the perceiver’s resonance with a child’s emotions.
    Basic and Applied Social Psychology 07/2014; 36:299-308. DOI:10.1080/01973533.2014.915217 · 0.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The perceptive accuracy of university students was compared between men and women, from sciences and humanities courses, to recognize emotional facial expressions. Emotional expressions have had increased interest in several areas involved with human interaction, reflecting the importance of perceptive skills in human expression of emotions for the effectiveness of communication. Two tests were taken: one was a quick exposure (0.5 s) of 12 faces with an emotional expression, followed by a neutral face. Subjects had to tell if happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust or surprise was flashed, and each emotion was shown twice, at random. On the second test 15 faces with the combination of two emotional expressions were shown without a time limit, and the subject had to name one of the emotions of the previous list. In this study, women perceived sad expressions better while men realized more happy faces. There was no significant difference in other emotions detection like anger, fear, surprise, disgust. Students of humanities and sciences areas of both sexes, when compared, had similar capacities to perceive emotional expressions.
    Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana 04/2013; 31(1):200-222.
  • Source
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 04/2015; 6:55. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00055