Socioeconomic Status and Lifetime Risk for Workplace Eye Injury Reported by a US Population Aged 50 Years and Over
ABSTRACT To examine whether socioeconomic status, as measured by educational attainment and annual household income, is associated with lifetime risk for workplace eye injury in a large US population.
In analyses of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2005-2007, N = 43,510), we used logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching to assess associations between socioeconomic measures and lifetime risk for workplace eye injury among those aged ≥50 years.
The lifetime prevalence of self-reported workplace eye injury was significantly higher among men (13.5%) than women (2.6%) (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, eye care insurance, health status, and risk-taking behaviors, men with less than high school education (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.74-2.87) or high school education (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.57-2.33) were more likely to report having had a lifetime workplace eye injury than those with more than a high school education. Men with an annual household income <$15,000 were also more likely to report having had a lifetime workplace eye injury than those whose income was >$50,000 (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07-1.95). After adjusting for other factors, no statistically significant associations between education, income, and lifetime workplace eye injury were found among women.
Socioeconomic status was associated with lifetime risk for workplace eye injury among men but not women. Greater public awareness of individual and societal impacts of workplace eye injuries, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged men, could help support efforts to develop a coordinated prevention strategy to minimize avoidable workplace eye injuries.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the epidemiology of eye trauma presenting to a regional referral health service in New South Wales, Australia. Methods: A two-stage retrospective and prospective case series study was conducted. Patients who presented with eye trauma to Wagga Wagga Base Hospital (WWBH) emergency department (ED) during a one-year review period formed the retrospective case series (RCS). Patient inclusion was determined using Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms and International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes applied to medical records. Patients presenting with eye trauma to the WWBH ED or its ophthalmology service over a prospective 80-day study period formed the prospective case series (PCS). The main outcome measures were patient demographics, eye trauma incidence for Wagga Wagga and the Murrumbidgee region and injury details. Results: A total of 411 and 117 eye injuries were identified for the RCS and PCS, respectively. Mean age was 35.5 ± 18.6 years (RCS) and 34.1 ± 17.1 years (PCS), with male predominance (77.9%, RCS; 89.7%, PCS). The incidence of eye trauma in Wagga Wagga and Murrumbidgee was estimated from the PCS at 537.1 and 334.4, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. A large proportion of injuries were work-related (40.2% RCS, 45.8% PCS). Protective eyewear use in work-related injuries was low (27.6% RCS, 39.0% PCS). Conclusions: Eye trauma remains a significant public health concern with a high incidence in Wagga Wagga and the Murrumbidgee region. Protective eyewear compliance is low in work-related eye injuries. Patient demographic and occupational factors may be targeted to reduce the burden of disease.Ophthalmic Epidemiology 06/2014; 21(4):1-10. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2014.928825 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ocular complaints represent a sizeable burden to emergency departments, accounting for an estimated 2.4 million ED visits annually. We sought to characterise visits associated with ocular injury and examine factors contributing to inpatient admission. We searched the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample between 2006 and 2011 and identified cases in which patients presented with a primary or secondary diagnosis of ocular trauma. We described these cases according to age, sex, external mechanism of injury, payer status, and identified relationships between these variables. Logistic regression models were employed to identify crude and adjusted relative odds of admission to inpatient status based on patient demographics, mechanism of injury, payer status, and the existence of multiple injuries. Between 2006 and 2011, a total of 5541,434 visits were made to EDs in the United States with a primary or other diagnosis of ocular trauma; ocular trauma was the primary diagnosis in 77.9% of these cases. Overall, mean age at presentation was 33.8 years and the majority of patients were male (64.8%). Male sex, older age, being struck by or against an object, the existence of multiple injuries, and Medicaid as a primary payer were all associated with significantly higher odds of hospital admission. The distribution of primary external mechanism of injury suggested that individuals are at higher risks for different injury types at each successive stage of life. Age and injury mechanism were correlated with odds of admission to inpatient status, with the highest odds among older adults who had been injured by being struck by or against an object. Ocular injury plays a substantial role in the ED. Further work is necessary to determine whether developing and implementing age- and sex-appropriate prevention strategies could reduce the incidence of ocular injury and reduce morbidity related to these types of injuries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Injury 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2015.07.020 · 2.14 Impact Factor