Accumulation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Adipocytes: Selective Targeting to Lipid Droplets and Role of Caveolin-1

National Institutes of Health, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 02/2012; 7(2):e31834. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031834
Source: PubMed


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that preferentially accumulate in lipid-rich tissues of contaminated organisms. Although the adipose tissue constitutes a major intern reservoir of PCBs and recent epidemiological studies associate PCBs to the development of obesity and its related disorders, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their uptake by the adipose tissue and their intracellular localization in fat cells.
We have examined the intracellular distribution of PCBs in mouse cultured adipocytes and tested the potential involvement of caveolin-1, an abundant adipocyte membrane protein, in the uptake of these compounds by fat cells. We show that 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB-28), 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) congeners rapidly and extensively accumulate in 3T3-L1 or mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) derived cultured adipocytes. The dynamics of accumulation differed between the 3 congeners tested. By subcellular fractionation of primary adipocytes, we demonstrate that these pollutants were almost exclusively recovered within the lipid droplet fraction and practically not associated to cell membranes. The absence of caveolin-1 expression in primary adipocytes from cav-1 deficient mice did not modify lipid droplet selective targeting of PCBs. In cav-1 KO MEF differentiated adipocytes, PCB accumulation was decreased, which correlated with reduced cell triglyceride content. Conversely, adenoviral mediated cav-1 overexpressing in 3T3-L1 cells, which had no impact on total cell lipid content, did not change PCB accumulation.
Our data indicate that caveolin-1 per se is not required for selective PCB accumulation, but rather point out a primary dependence on adipocyte triglyceride content. If the crucial role of lipid droplets in energy homeostasis is considered, the almost exclusive accumulation of PCBs in these organelles warrants future attention as the impairment of their function could be linked to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

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    • "The PCBs were added to the culture medium as ethanolic solution and four conditions of PCB contamination were tested: (i) 2,4,4′-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB-28); (ii) 2,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-118); (iii) 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153); (iv) an equimolar mixture of three PCB congeners (PCB-28, -118 and -153), also called cocktail of PCBs. In all conditions of contamination, each PCB was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 300 nM, which is within the range of concentrations found in in vivo and in vitro studies [4], [29], [30]. Impact of the ethanol vehicle was tested earlier [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. Conclusion/Significance These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106495. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106495 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "PCB- 153 was added to the culture medium as an ethanolic solution at a concentration of 300 nM, which is within the range of concentrations found in in vivo and in vitro studies (Wassermann et al. 1979; Meeker et al. 2011; Bourez et al. 2012b). The impact of the ethanol vehicle was tested earlier (Bourez et al. 2012b). Twelve hours later (day 11), some cells were pooled in order to quantify the intracellular accumulation of PCB-153. "
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    ABSTRACT: The triglycerides (TGs) stored in the white adipose tissue are mobilized during periods of negative energy balance. To date, there is no in vitro model of adipocytes imitating a long period of negative energy balance in which triglycerides are highly mobilized. Such model would allow studying the mobilization of TGs and lipophilic compounds trapped within the adipose tissue (e.g., pollutants and vitamins). The present study aims at developing a performing long-term in vitro lipolysis in adipocytes, resulting in a significant decrease of TG stores. Lipolysis was induced on differentiated rat adipocytes by a lipolytic medium with or without isoproterenol for 12 h. The condition with isoproterenol was duplicated, once with medium renewal every 3 h and once without medium renewal. Adding isoproterenol efficiently triggered lipolysis in a short time (3 h). However, a single stimulation by isoproterenol, without medium renewal, was not sufficient to reduce the TG content during a longer term (12 h). A reesterification of fatty acids occurred after a few hours of lipolysis, resulting in a novel increase of cellular lipids. Regular medium renewal combined with repeated isoproterenol stimulations led to almost emptied cells after 12 h. However, medium renewal without isoproterenol stimulation for 12 h was as efficient in terms of lipid mobilization. Our study demonstrates that, over a short-term period, isoproterenol is required to exert a significant lipolytic effect on adipocytes. During a long-term period, the presence of isoproterenol is no longer essential. Instead, medium renewal becomes the main factor involved in cell emptying. The efficiency of this protocol was demonstrated by visual tracking of the cells and by monitoring the dynamics of release of a lipophilic compound, PCB-153, from adipocytes during lipolysis.
    In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 01/2014; 50(6). DOI:10.1007/s11626-014-9733-6 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    • "However, there is currently no evidence for differences in POP content under steady-state conditions between different types of AT (Kim et al. 2011). Despite the presence of a large number of AT cell types, POP storage in AT is believed to be primarily in the adipoc ytes (Bourez et al. 2012). Adipocyte cytoplasm is almost totally composed of triglyceride droplets (Sbarbati et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in several physiological functions, including metabolic regulation, energy storage, and endocrine functions. Objectives: In this review we examined the evidence that an additional function of AT is to modulate persistent organic pollutant (POP) toxicity through several mechanisms. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the interaction of AT with POPs to provide a comprehensive model for this additional function of AT. Discussion: As a storage compartment for lipophilic POPs, AT plays a critical role in the toxicokinetics of a variety of drugs and pollutants, in particular, POPs. By sequestering POPs, AT can protect other organs and tissues from POPs overload. However, this protective function could prove to be a threat in the long run. The accumulation of lipophilic POPs will increase total body burden. These accumulated POPs are slowly released into the bloodstream, and more so during weight loss. Thus, AT constitutes a continual source of internal exposure to POPs. In addition to its buffering function, AT is also a target of POPs and may mediate part of their metabolic effects. This is particularly relevant because many POPs induce obesogenic effects that may lead to quantitative and qualitative alterations of AT. Some POPs also induce a proinflammatory state in AT, which may lead to detrimental metabolic effects. Conclusion: AT appears to play diverse functions both as a modulator and as a target of POPs toxicity.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 12/2012; 121(2). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205485 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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