Preoperative pregabalin administration significantly reduces postoperative opioid consumption and mechanical hyperalgesia after transperitoneal nephrectomy.
ABSTRACT Preoperative administration of pregabalin is proposed as a promising way of enhancing postoperative pain control. Whereas a few studies have investigated the effect of pregabalin on postoperative opioid consumption, no study has focused on the influence on postoperative hyperalgesia. In this randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we aimed to demonstrate that a single, preoperative dose of pregabalin reduces postoperative opioid consumption, mechanical hyperalgesia, and pain sensitivity.
Patients undergoing elective transperitoneal nephrectomy received 300 mg pregabalin or placebo 1 h before anaesthesia. After operation, patients received piritramide via a patient-controlled analgesia device. Pain levels and side-effects were documented. The area of hyperalgesia for punctuate mechanical stimuli around the incision was measured 48 h after the operation with a hand-held von Frey filament. Mechanical pain threshold was tested before and 48 h after surgery with von Frey filaments with increasing diameters.
In each group, 13 patients were recruited. Total piritramide consumption [77 (16) vs 52 (16) mg, P=0.0004] and the normalized area of hyperalgesia [143 (87) vs 84 (54) cm(2), P=0.0497] were significantly decreased in the pregabalin group. There were no significant differences in mechanical pain threshold levels [1.20 (0.56) log(g) vs 1.05 (0.58) log(g), P=0.6738]. No case of severe sedation was reported in both groups. No other side-effects were observed.
Our study has shown that preoperative administration of 300 mg pregabalin in patients undergoing transperitoneal nephrectomy reduces postoperative opioid consumption and decreases the area of mechanical hyperalgesia.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Substantial progress has been made during the last decades in our understanding of acute pain mechanisms, and this knowledge has encouraged the search for novel treatments. Of particular interest has been the observation that tissue injury initiates a number of modulations of both the peripheral and the central pain pathways, which convert the system from a 'physiological' to a 'pathological' mode of processing afferent information. Gabapentin, which binds to the alpha(2)delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, is active in animal models of 'pathological' but not in models of 'physiological' pain. Consequently, attention has so far been focused on neuropathic pain as a target for the clinical use of gabapentin and analogues. Recently, several reports have indicated that gabapentin may have a place in the treatment of post-operative pain. This article presents a brief summary of the potential mechanisms of post-operative pain, and a systematic review of the available data of gabapentin and pregabalin for post-operative analgesia. It is concluded that the results with gabapentin and pregabalin in post-operative pain treatment published so far are promising. It is suggested that future studies should explore the effects of 'protective premedication' with combinations of various antihyperanalgesic and analgesic drugs for post-operative analgesia.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 11/2004; 48(9):1130-6. · 2.36 Impact Factor
Article: Perioperative pain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Incisional pain remains underevaluated and undermanaged while evidence is growing that perioperative treatments strongly influence patients' outcome. The present review examines the recent developments in mechanisms underlying perioperative pain and questions current understanding of incisional pain features observed in patients. Experimental models of incisional pain have highlighted specific mechanisms underlying perioperative pain plasticity, i.e. sensitization of sensory processing, clinically expressed by the development of hyperalgesia. In patients, however, the long-term impact of sensory system sensitization, e.g. development of residual pain, as well as the effects of perioperative pain management on sensitization, are still poorly understood, partly because most of the trials assess only the subjective experience of pain (by evaluation of either pain intensity or analgesic needs) instead of directly measuring objective changes (i.e. hyperalgesia) with quantitative sensory testing. Experimental studies and recent clinical trials using objective measures of sensory processing sensitization induced by surgical incision have shown the importance of hyperalgesia in perioperative pain. Effective perioperative block of nociceptive inputs from the wound as well as use of antihyperalgesic and analgesic drugs in combination seem the best way to control postoperative pain and specifically to prevent central sensitization.Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 11/2006; 19(5):556-61. · 2.40 Impact Factor
Article: Mechanisms of incisional pain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Postoperative, incisional pain is a unique but common form of acute pain. Because effective postoperative analgesia reduces morbidity following surgery, new treatments continue to be sought. It is through the development of investigational models and studies of the mechanisms that perioperative medicine can be advanced. This article reviews studies on a rat plantar hindpaw model for postoperative pain and proposes mechanisms for enhanced excitability of sensory neurons caused by incisions.Anesthesiology Clinics of North America 04/2005; 23(1):1-20.