Diaphragmatic injuries after blunt trauma: are they still a challenge? Reviewing CT findings and integrated imaging.
ABSTRACT Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture is a life-threatening injury that may occur in patients with blunt trauma. At present, supine chest radiographs is the initial, most commonly performed imaging test to evaluate a traumatic injury of the thorax. However, computed tomography (CT) is the imaging tool of choice, as it is the 'gold standard' for the detection of diaphragmatic injury after trauma. In particular, recent literature indicates that multidetector CT with multiplanar reformations has significantly improved in accuracy. Radiologists working in the emergency room should keep in mind the possibility of diaphragmatic injuries and should routinely integrate the axial images CT with multiplanar reformations in order to detect any potential, subtle or doubtful sign of incomplete diaphragmatic injury.
Journal of Emergency Medicine 05/2014; 47(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.01.028 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One-third of patients involved in a road traffic accident have a significant chest injury. Chest trauma is the leading cause of death after brain injury with an associated mortality up to 25%. It is the first cause of preventable death. More than 90% of blunt trauma of the thoracic cavity are treated with simple thoracostomy tube placement while only 10% required operative intervention, such thoracotomy or thoracoscopy. In this brief review an effort is made to provide and document the basic principles of diagnosis and treatment guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: This review aims to answer the most common questions in routine surgical practice during the first 48 h of blunt chest trauma (BCT) management. Two authors identified relevant manuscripts published since January 1994 to January 2014. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, they focused on the surgical management of BCT, excluded both child and vascular injuries and selected 80 studies. Tension pneumothorax should be promptly diagnosed and treated by needle decompression closely followed with chest tube insertion (Grade D). All traumatic pneumothoraces are considered for chest tube insertion. However, observation is possible for selected patients with small unilateral pneumothoraces without respiratory disease or need for positive pressure ventilation (Grade C). Symptomatic traumatic haemothoraces or haemothoraces >500 ml should be treated by chest tube insertion (Grade D). Occult pneumothoraces and occult haemothoraces are managed by observation with daily chest X-rays (Grades B and C). Periprocedural antibiotics are used to prevent chest-tube-related infectious complications (Grade B). No sign of life at the initial assessment and cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration >10 min are considered as contraindications of Emergency Department Thoracotomy (Grade C). Damage Control Thoracotomy is performed for either massive air leakage or refractive shock or ongoing bleeding enhanced by chest tube output >1500 ml initially or >200 ml/h for 3 h (Grade D). In the case of haemodynamically stable patients, early video-assisted thoracic surgery is performed for retained haemothoraces (Grade B). Fixation of flail chest can be considered if mechanical ventilation for 48 h is probably required (Grade B). Fixation of sternal fractures is performed for displaced fractures with overlap or comminution, intractable pain or respiratory insufficiency (Grade D). Lung herniation, traumatic diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture are life-threatening situations requiring prompt diagnosis and surgical advice. (Grades C and D). Tracheobronchial repair is mandatory in cases of tracheal tear >2 cm, oesophageal prolapse, mediastinitis or massive air leakage (Grade C). These evidence-based surgical indications for BCT management should support protocols for chest trauma management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu397 · 1.11 Impact Factor