Anti-human leukocyte antigen immunization after early allograft nephrectomy.

Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Organ Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France.
Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.78). 03/2012; 93(9):936-41. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0b013e31824b3720
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The occurrence of de novo anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies and donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) after early graft loss is not well known. The aims of this single-center study were to evaluate the incidence of de novo DSAs and non-DSA anti-HLA antibodies after allograft nephrectomy for early graft loss and to seek the predictive factors for the development of DSAs.
Thirty-two patients, who experienced an early graft loss (<3 months after transplantation) and required an allograft nephrectomy, and who were considered for retransplantation, were included in the study. Anti-HLA antibodies were assessed, using the Luminex assay, before transplantation, on day 15 and at months 1, 3, 6, and 9 after the nephrectomy, and then every 3 to 6 months until the last follow-up.
The median time between transplantation and allograft nephrectomy was 2.5 (0-81) days. The median follow-up was 335 (30-1441) days. At month 9, postallograft nephrectomy, the incidence of DSAs was 56.6% (17/30). Anti-HLA class I and class II DSAs were detected, respectively, in 33.3% (10/30) and 30% (9/30) of patients. The incidence of de novo non-DSA anti-HLA antibodies was 64% (19/30): of these, 83.3% reacted to the donors' epitopes. Induction therapy (type and dose) and the time between transplantation and allograft nephrectomy did not influence the incidence of DSAs. No independent predictive factor for the development of DSAs was identified.
Even after a short transplantation period, DSAs and non-DSA anti-HLA antibodies may develop in more than 50% of patients whose immunosuppression has been stopped after an allograft nephrectomy.

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