Anti-Human Leukocyte Antigen Immunization After Early Allograft Nephrectomy
ABSTRACT The occurrence of de novo anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies and donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) after early graft loss is not well known. The aims of this single-center study were to evaluate the incidence of de novo DSAs and non-DSA anti-HLA antibodies after allograft nephrectomy for early graft loss and to seek the predictive factors for the development of DSAs.
Thirty-two patients, who experienced an early graft loss (<3 months after transplantation) and required an allograft nephrectomy, and who were considered for retransplantation, were included in the study. Anti-HLA antibodies were assessed, using the Luminex assay, before transplantation, on day 15 and at months 1, 3, 6, and 9 after the nephrectomy, and then every 3 to 6 months until the last follow-up.
The median time between transplantation and allograft nephrectomy was 2.5 (0-81) days. The median follow-up was 335 (30-1441) days. At month 9, postallograft nephrectomy, the incidence of DSAs was 56.6% (17/30). Anti-HLA class I and class II DSAs were detected, respectively, in 33.3% (10/30) and 30% (9/30) of patients. The incidence of de novo non-DSA anti-HLA antibodies was 64% (19/30): of these, 83.3% reacted to the donors' epitopes. Induction therapy (type and dose) and the time between transplantation and allograft nephrectomy did not influence the incidence of DSAs. No independent predictive factor for the development of DSAs was identified.
Even after a short transplantation period, DSAs and non-DSA anti-HLA antibodies may develop in more than 50% of patients whose immunosuppression has been stopped after an allograft nephrectomy.
- Transplantation 02/2012; 93(9):865-6. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e31824b3791 · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Within the last few years, anti-human leukocyte antigen detection assays have significantly improved. This study asked, using the Luminex single-antigen assay, whether an allograft nephrectomy allowed donor-specific alloantibodies to appear that were not previously detected in the serum when the failed kidney was still in place. After losing the kidney allograft and stopping immunosuppressive therapy, the proportions of donor-specific alloantibodies and nondonor-specific alloantibodies were compared in patients who had (n=48; group I) and had not (n=21; group II) undergone an allograft nephrectomy. Allograft nephrectomies were performed at 150 days after kidney allograft loss, and the time between allograft nephrectomy and last follow-up was 538 ± 347 days. At kidney allograft loss, donor-specific alloantibodies were detected in three group II patients (14.2%) and six group I patients (12.5%). At last follow-up, donor-specific alloantibodies were detected in 11 patients (52.4%) without and 39 patients (81%) with an allograft nephrectomy (P=0.02). Anti-human leukocyte antigen class I donor-specific alloantibodies were positive in 23.8% of group II and 77% of group I patients (P<0.001); anti-human leukocyte antigen class II donor-specific alloantibodies were positive in 42.8% of group II and 62.5% of group I patients. Independent predictive factors for developing donor-specific alloantibodies after losing kidney allograft and stopping immunosuppressants were number of anti-human leukocyte antigen A/B mismatches at transplantation (zero versus one or more) and allograft nephrectomy. The development of donor-specific alloantibodies was significantly greater in patients with a failed kidney who had undergone an allograft nephrectomy compared with those patients who had not undergone allograft nephrectomy.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2012; 7(8):1310-9. DOI:10.2215/CJN.00260112 · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sensitization is generally referred to as the development of alloantibodies, specifically anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, most commonly caused by pregnancy, blood transfusion or a previous transplant. Despite being a well known phenomenon, there has not been a general consensus on its definition, monitoring or management. Today, 25% of the patients waitlisted for kidney transplant in the US have a panel reactive antibody (PRA) of >10% while, in the Eurotransplant zone, 14% have a PRA of >5%. Sensitized patients have more difficulty in finding a well HLA-matched donor, and have a higher risk of experiencing longer waiting times, more rejection episodes and eventually inferior long-term graft or patient survival. We review the currently available strategies in identifying and managing highly sensitized patients undergoing renal transplantation. We discuss the progress and limitations in laboratory techniques to elaborate on challenges in defining sensitized patients. The main management options (i.e. the Acceptable Mismatch Program, donor exchange programmes and the desensitization approach) and their mechanisms, related policies, advantages and outcomes, as well as medications and methods being investigated, are updated. In addition, particular emphasis is given to sensitization prevention, a practice that is neglected with our increasing ability to suppress the immune system.Drugs 07/2012; 72(10):1335-54. DOI:10.2165/11631110-000000000-00000 · 4.13 Impact Factor