Correction: Microglial TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) deficiency promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration via nuclear factor-κB

Department of Neurobiology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China.
Journal of Neuroinflammation (Impact Factor: 4.9). 02/2012; 9:39. DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-39
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is the sole downstream adaptor of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3, which is one of the major signaling pathways in immune cells leading to neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. Overexpression of TRIF may lead to activation of inflammatory responses, and contribute to pathophysiological progression in both acute and chronic neurodegenerative retinal diseases. In the present study, was aimed to elucidate the contributions of TRIF to optic nerve (ON) regeneration and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival following injury to the ON, a widely studied model of central nervous system injury and of degenerative diseases such as glaucoma.
We used retrograde labeling with a fluorochrome, hydroxystilbamidine (Fluorogold) to evaluate RGC survival, and immunostaining with growth-associated protein-43 to evaluate axon regeneration in an ON crush model. Changes in microglial cytokines following RGC injury was examined with ELISA and real-time PCR. In vivo studies were carried out in wild-type and trif-/- mice. A Transwell co-culture system and migration test were used to mimic the crosstalk between microglia and RGCs. TRIF-associated downstream adaptors were determined by western blotting.
Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, TRIF knockout (KO) mice displayed a robust ability to regenerate axons 3 or 7 days after nerve injury. In addition, RGC survival was considerably higher in trif-/- than in WT mice. ON lesion induced less microglial activation in trif-/- than in WT mice. and more WT microglia distorted and migrated toward the foramen opticum. In the transwell system, few trif-/- microglia migrated through the membrane when stimulated by the performed lesion on RGC axons in a transwell system. Inactivation of microglial cells in trif-/- mice was associated with reduced production of inflammatory cytokines, as detected with real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Furthermore western blot analysis showed that activation of known downstream effectors of TRIF, including TBK1, IKKε and NF-κB, were significantly inhibited by TRIF deficiency.
Our results indicate that TRIF deficiency promotes ON axon regeneration by attenuating microglial activation and consequently reducing the release of harmful cytokines via NF-κB inactivation.

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    ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is characterized by progressive loss of the visual field and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a process that is mediated, in part, by axonal injury. However, the molecular pathomechanisms linking RGC death and axonal injury remain largely unknown. Here, we examined these mechanisms with a cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE), which allows the comprehensive quantification of transcription initiation across the entire genome. We aimed to identify changes in gene expression patterns and to predict the resulting alterations in the protein network in the early phases of axonal injury in mice. We performed optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice to model axonal injury. Two days after ONC, the retinas were isolated, RNA was extracted, and a CAGE library was constructed and sequenced. CAGE data for ONC eyes and sham-treated eyes was compared, revealing 180 differentially expressed genes. Among them, the Bcat1 gene, involved in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acid transaminase, showed the largest change in expression (log2 fold-change = 6.70). In some differentially expressed genes, alternative transcription start sites were observed in the ONC eyes, highlighting the dynamism of transcription initiation in a state of disease. In silico pathway analysis predicted that ATF4 was the most significant upstream regulator orchestrating pathological processes after ONC. Its downstream candidate targets included Ddit3, which is known to induce cell death under endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, a regulatory network comprising IFNG, P38 MAPK, and TP53 was predicted to be involved in the induction of cell death. Through CAGE, we have identified differentially expressed genes that may account for the link between axonal injury and RGC death. Furthermore, an in silico pathway analysis provided a global view of alterations in the networks of key regulators of biological pathways that presumably take place in ONC. We thus believe that our study serves as a valuable resource to understand the molecular processes that define axonal injury-driven RGC death.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Immune system cells are known to affect loss of neurons due to injury or disease. Recruitment of immune cells following retinal/CNS injury has been shown to affect the health and survival of neurons in several models. We detected close, physical contact between dendritic cells and retinal ganglion cells following an optic nerve crush, and sought to understand the underlying mechanisms.MethodsCD11c-DTR/GFP mice producing a chimeric protein of diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) and GFP from a transgenic CD11c promoter were used in conjunction with mice deficient in MyD88 and/or TRIF. Retinal ganglion cell injury was induced by an optic nerve crush, and the resulting interactions of the GFPhi cells and retinal ganglion cells were examined.ResultsRecruitment of GFPhi dendritic cells to the retina was significantly compromised in MyD88 and TRIF knockout mice. GFPhi dendritic cells played a significant role in clearing fluorescent-labeled retinal ganglion cells post-injury in the CD11c-DTR/GFP mice. In the TRIF and MyD88 deficient mice, the resting level of GFPhi dendritic cells was lower, and their influx was reduced following the optic nerve crush injury. The reduction in GFPhi dendritic cell numbers led to their replacement in the uptake of fluorescent-labeled debris by GFPlo microglia/macrophages. Depletion of GFPhi dendritic cells by treatment with diphtheria toxin also led to their displacement by GFPlo microglia/macrophages, which then assumed close contact with the injured neurons.Conclusions The contribution of recruited cells to the injury response was substantial, and regulated by MyD88 and TRIF. However, the presence of these adaptor proteins was not required for interaction with neurons, or the phagocytosis of debris. The data suggested a two-niche model in which resident microglia were maintained at a constant level post-optic nerve crush, while the injury-stimulated recruitment of dendritic cells and macrophages led to their transient appearance in numbers equivalent to or greater than the resident microglia.
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