Article

Leishmaniasis: prevention, parasite detection and treatment.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Prague, Czech Republic.
Current Medicinal Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.07). 02/2012; 19(10):1443-74.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 12 million people in 88 countries; 50 000 die of it each year. The disease is caused by Leishmania, obligate intracellular vector-borne parasites. In spite of its huge health impact on the populations in vast areas, leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected diseases. No safe and effective vaccine currently exists against any form of human leishmaniasis. The spectrum and efficacy of available antileishmanial drugs are also limited. First part of this review discusses the approaches used for the vaccination against leishmaniasis that are based on the pathogen and includes virulent or attenuated parasites, parasites of related nonpathogenic species, whole killed parasites, parasites' subunits, DNA vaccines, and vaccines based on the saliva or saliva components of transmitting phlebotomine vector. Second part describes parasite detection and quantification using microscopy assays, cell cultures, immunodetection, and DNA-based methods, and shows a progress in the development and application of these techniques. In the third part, first-line and alternative drugs used to treat leishmaniasis are characterized, and pre-clinical research of a range of natural and synthetic compounds studied for the leishmanicidal activity is described. The review also suggests that the application of novel strategies based on advances in genetics, genomics, advanced delivery systems, and high throughput screenings for leishmanicidal compounds would lead to improvement of prevention and treatment of this disease.

0 0
 · 
1 Bookmark
 · 
192 Views
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The growing incidence of parasitic resistance against generic pentavalent antimonials, specifically for visceral disease in Indian subcontinent, is a serious issue in Leishmania control. Notwithstanding the two treatment alternatives, that is amphotericin B and miltefosine are being effectively used but their high cost and therapeutic complications limit their use in endemic areas. In the absence of a vaccine candidate, identification, and characterization of novel drugs and targets is a major requirement of leishmanial research. This review describes current drug regimens, putative drug targets, numerous natural products that have shown promising antileishmanial activity alongwith some key issues and strategies for future research to control leishmaniasis worldwide.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 12/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A fluorescent peroxidase-linked DNA aptamer-magnetic bead sandwich assay is described which detects as little as 100 ng of soluble protein extracted from Leishmania major promastigotes with a high molarity chaotropic salt. Lessons learned during development of the assay are described and elucidate the pros and cons of using fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles and quantum dots versus a more consistent peroxidase-linked Amplex Ultra Red (AUR; similar to resazurin) fluorescence version of the assay. While all versions of the assays were highly sensitive, the AUR-based version exhibited lower variability between tests. We hypothesize that the AUR version of this assay is more consistent, especially at low analyte levels, because the fluorescent product of AUR is liberated into bulk solution and readily detectable while fluorophores attached to the reporter aptamer might occasionally be hidden behind magnetic beads near the detection limit. Conversely, fluorophores could be quenched by nearby beads or other proximal fluorophores on the high end of analyte concentration, if packed into a small area after magnetic collection when an enzyme-linked system is not used. A highly portable and rechargeable battery-operated fluorometer with on board computer and color touchscreen is also described which can be used for rapid (<1 h) and sensitive detection of Leishmania promastigote protein extracts (∼100 ng per sample) in buffer or sandfly homogenates for mapping of L. major parasite geographic distributions in wild sandfly populations.
    Journal of Fluorescence 11/2013; · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel series of 1,2,4-triazino-[5,6b]indole-3-thione covalently linked to 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro activity against extracellular promastigote and intracellular amastigote form of Leishmania donovani. Among all tested compounds, compounds 7a and 7b were found to be the most active with IC50 values 1.11, 0.36μM and selectivity index (SI) values 67, >1111, respectively, against amastigote form of L. donovani which is several folds more potent than the standard drugs, miltefosine (IC50=8.10μM, SI=7) and sodium stibo-gluconate (IC50=54.60μM, SI⩾7).
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
465 Downloads
Available from
Oct 16, 2012