Xanthohumol impairs autophagosome maturation through direct inhibition of valosin-containing protein.
ABSTRACT Autophagy is a bulk, nonspecific protein degradation pathway that is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Here, we observed that xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, modulates autophagy. By using XN-immobilized beads, valosin-containing protein (VCP) was identified as a XN-binding protein. VCP has been reported to be an essential protein for autophagosome maturation. Using an in vitro pull down assay, we showed that XN bound directly to the N domain, which is known to mediate cofactor and substrate binding to VCP. These data indicated that XN inhibited the function of VCP, thereby allowing the impairment of autophagosome maturation and resulting in the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II). This is the first report demonstrating XN as a VCP inhibitor that binds directly to the N domain of VCP. Our finding that XN bound to and inactivated VCP not only reveals the molecular mechanism of XN-modulated autophagy but may also explain how XN exhibits various biological activities that have been reported previously.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genomic alterations may make cancer cells more dependent than normal cells on mechanisms of proteostasis, including protein folding and degradation. This proposition is the basis for the clinical use of proteasome inhibitors to treat multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. However, proteasome inhibitors have not proved effective in treating other cancers, and this has called into question the general applicability of this approach. Here, I consider possible explanations for this apparently limited applicability, and discuss whether inhibiting other broadly acting components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system - including ubiquitin-activating enzyme and the AAA-ATPase p97/VCP - might be more generally effective in cancer therapy.BMC Biology 12/2014; 12(1):94. · 7.43 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Xanthohumol (XN) is a natural anticancer compound that inhibits the proliferation of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer cells. However, the precise mechanism of the antitumour effects of XN on oestrogen (E2)-dependent cell growth, and especially its direct target molecule(s), remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we focus on whether XN directly binds to the tumour suppressor protein prohibitin 2 (PHB2), forming a novel natural antitumour compound targeting the BIG3-PHB2 complex and acting as a pivotal modulator of E2/ERα signalling in breast cancer cells. XN treatment effectively prevented the BIG3-PHB2 interaction, thereby releasing PHB2 to directly bind to both nuclear- and cytoplasmic ERα. This event led to the complete suppression of the E2-signalling pathways and ERα-positive breast cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, but did not suppress the growth of normal mammary epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that XN may be a promising natural compound to suppress the growth of luminal-type breast cancer.Scientific Reports 12/2014; 4:7355. · 5.08 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism critically involved in regulating tissue homeostasis. The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. Herein we review the current landscape in the development of screening technology as well as the molecules and pharmacologic agents targeting the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds in different human pathologies.The Journal of clinical investigation. 01/2015; 125(1):5-13.