Optimal Guidance Technique for Musculoskeletal Biopsies

Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck, Austria.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.73). 03/2012; 198(3):W321; author reply W322. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.11.7641
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions are a safe, economical, and reliable method of obtaining a diagnosis. Most of these biopsies are done under CT guidance, but fluoroscopy is an alternative. Conditions that can be discovered through percutaneous biopsies include metastases, primary benign tumors, infection, and metabolic disease. Experience with invasive procedures and with imaging equipment are the requirements for a physician interested in performing these biopsies.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of percutaneous core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal sarcomas. One hundred eighty-five biopsy procedures were performed on 161 musculoskeletal tissue masses suspected of being a sarcoma in 155 patients who underwent subsequent tumor resection. A percutaneous core needle biopsy was performed on all masses either in the clinic or under radiologic guidance. If an adequate diagnosis could not be made on the basis of this biopsy specimen, an open incisional biopsy was performed. One hundred seventy-three core needle biopsy procedures were performed: 90 without radiologic guidance, 55 computed tomography guided, and 28 fluoroscopically guided. Twelve open incisional biopsies were performed. Eighty-three sarcomas, 67 benign mesenchymal tumors, and 11 metastatic epithelial tumors were identified. Analysis of the data reveals that only 7.4% of the masses required open biopsy. In 88.2% of the masses, a single percutaneous biopsy procedure was adequate, and no additional biopsy was necessary. There was a 1.1% rate of complications; none caused a change in the patient's treatment plan. There was a 1.1% rate of major diagnostic errors, none of which ultimately impacted on the patient's outcome. There were no unnecessary amputations. Percutaneous needle biopsy showed a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 82%, a sensitivity of 81.8%, and a specificity of 100%. The accuracy of a single-needle biopsy procedure to identify benign versus malignant lesions, exact grade, and exact pathology was 92.4%, 88.6%, and 72.7%, respectively. The percutaneous needle biopsy was found to be extremely effective and safe for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal masses. This method allowed 88% of patients with suspected sarcomas to undergo a single-needle biopsy procedure before the initiation of definitive treatment. Patients undergoing percutaneous needle biopsy had lower rates of major diagnostic errors and complications than previously described for open biopsy. Open biopsy offered limited additional information when preceded by a needle biopsy, given that these tumors were difficult to identify even after final resection.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a novel approach to the work-up of musculoskeletal lesions with addition of an ultrasound contrast agent followed by focal ultrasound-guided biopsy. In this pilot study 25 patients (age: 12-75) with unclear musculoskeletal tumors underwent grayscale ultrasound, color Doppler, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy. Grayscale and color Doppler ultrasound were performed with a 12-5 MHz broadband linear transducer and contrast-enhanced ultrasound with a 9-3 MHz broadband linear transducer (iU22®, Philips, USA) using a second-generation contrast agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Italy). After the definition of the target area by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, guided biopsies were performed with a spring-loaded tru-cut™ biopsy needle using the coaxial technique. The definition of enhancing and viable tumor regions resulted in a diagnostic yield of the subsequent biopsy of 100%. Seventeen tumors were classified as malignant and eight as benign, which was finally confirmed by histological work-up or the further clinical follow-up. This pilot study with a limited series of patients improved the diagnostic yield of ultrasound-guided biopsy to 100%, which is at least rather promising. Our easy-to-use algorithm should reduce the rate of inconclusive histology results mainly caused by sampling errors to an unrivaled minimum.
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