Coronary Artery Calcium Can Predict All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events on Low-Dose CT Screening for Lung Cancer

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, P.O. Box 85060, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.74). 03/2012; 198(3):505-11. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.10.5577
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Performing coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening as part of low-dose CT lung cancer screening has been proposed as an efficient strategy to detect people with high cardiovascular risk and improve outcomes of primary prevention. This study aims to investigate whether CAC measured on low-dose CT in a population of former and current heavy smokers is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiac events.
We used a case-cohort study and included 958 subjects 50 years old or older within the screen group of a randomized controlled lung cancer screening trial. We used Cox proportional-hazard models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors to predict all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events.
During a median follow-up of 21.5 months, 56 deaths and 127 cardiovascular events occurred. Compared with a CAC score of 0, multivariate-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for CAC scores of 1-100, 101-1000, and more than 1000 were 3.00 (95% CI, 0.61-14.93), 6.13 (95% CI, 1.35-27.77), and 10.93 (95% CI, 2.36-50.60), respectively. Multivariate-adjusted HRs for coronary events were 1.38 (95% CI, 0.39-4.90), 3.04 (95% CI, 0.95-9.73), and 7.77 (95% CI, 2.44-24.75), respectively.
This study shows that CAC scoring as part of low-dose CT lung cancer screening can be used as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association of spirometry and pulmonary CT biomarkers with cardiovascular events. Methods In this lung cancer screening trial 3,080 male participants without a prior cardiovascular event were analysed. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events were included. Spirometry included forced expiratory volume measured in units of one-second percent predicted (FEV1%predicted) and FEV1 divided by forced vital capacity (FVC; FEV1/FVC). CT examinations were quantified for coronary artery calcium volume, pulmonary emphysema (perc15) and bronchial wall thickness (pi10). Data were analysed via a Cox proportional hazard analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and C-indices. Results 184 participants experienced a cardiovascular event during a median follow-up of 2.9 years. Age, pack-years and smoking status adjusted hazard ratios were 0.992 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.985-0.999) for FEV1%predicted, 1.000 (95%CI 0.986-1.015) for FEV1/FVC, 1.014 (95%CI 1.005-1.023) for perc15 per 10 HU, and 1.269 (95%CI 1.024-1.573) for pi10 per 1 mm. The incremental C-index (3, an increase in C-index of 0.076 and an NRI of 16.9 % (P Conclusions Pulmonary CT biomarkers and spirometry measurements were significantly associated with cardiovascular events, but did not contain clinically relevant independent prognostic information for cardiovascular events. Key Points • Pulmonary CT biomarkers and spirometry are associated with cardiovascular events • These pulmonary measurements do not contain clinically relevant independent prognostic information • Only coronary calcium score improved cardiovascular risk prediction above age and smoking
    European Radiology 09/2014; 25(1). DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3384-6 · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) on low-dose non-gated chest CT (ngCCT).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Current and former smokers are at an increased risk for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated two methods of visual scoring of coronary artery calcium on lung cancer screening computed tomography (CT) to predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Participants and methods: Cases were 1000 participants, age 55-74 years, enrolled in the National Lung Screening Trial CT arm who died during the study. An equal number of participants alive at the end of the study (controls) were matched in terms of sex, CT scanner vendor, and model, and 5-year age and smoking pack-years group. Coronary calcium was measured visually by three readers using two semiquantitative scoring schemes. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the presence and the extent of coronary calcium and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, stratified on matching criteria. Results: Cases and controls were well matched for age (64±6 vs. 64±5, P=0.95) and mean pack-years smoking (61±24 vs. 62±24, P=1.0). Cases were significantly more likely to have coronary calcium than controls (85 vs. 77%, P<0.001). Having any calcium was associated with an increased risk for CVD mortality using either visual scoring method (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 2.0-5.6, P<0.001, and odds ratio 3.3, 95% confidence interval 2.0-5.6, P<0.001). Conclusion: Visual scoring of coronary calcium predicts all-cause and CVD mortality in National Lung Screening Trial participants, independent of current versus former smoking status. Visual coronary calcium scoring in low-dose CT scans helps identify individuals at high risk for mortality who may benefit from further CVD prevention.
    Coronary Artery Disease 11/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1097/MCA.0000000000000189 · 1.30 Impact Factor