Complete genome sequence of a novel picornavirus, canine picornavirus, discovered in dogs.
ABSTRACT We discovered a novel canine picornavirus in fecal, nasopharyngeal, and urine samples from dogs. The coding potential of its genome (5'-VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1-2A-2B-2C-3A-3B-3C(pro)-3D(pol)-3', where 3C(pro) is 3C protease and 3D(pol) is 3D polymerase) is similar to those of other picornaviruses, with putative P1, P2, and P3 sharing 54% to 58%, 60%, and 64% to 67% amino acid identities with bat picornavirus groups 1, 2, and 3.
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ABSTRACT: While picornaviruses are known to infect different animals, their existence in the domestic cat was unknown. We describe the discovery of a novel feline picornavirus (FePV) from stray cats in Hong Kong. From samples from 662 cats, FePV was detected in fecal samples from 14 cats and urine samples from 2 cats by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Analysis of five FePV genomes revealed a distinct phylogenetic position and genomic features, with low sequence homologies to known picornaviruses especially in leader and 2A proteins. Among the viruses that belong to the closely related bat picornavirus groups 1 to 3 and the genus Sapelovirus, G+C content and sequence analysis of P1, P2, and P3 regions showed that FePV is most closely related to bat picornavirus group 3. However, FePV possessed other distinct features, including a putative type IV internal ribosome entry site/segment (IRES) instead of type I IRES in bat picornavirus group 3, protein cleavage sites, and H-D-C catalytic triad in 3C(pro) different from those in sapeloviruses and bat picornaviruses, and the shortest leader protein among known picornaviruses. These results suggest that FePV may belong to a new genus in the family Picornaviridae. Western blot analysis using recombinant FePV VP1 polypeptide showed a high seroprevalence of 33.6% for IgG among the plasma samples from 232 cats tested. IgM was also detected in three cats positive for FePV in fecal samples, supporting recent infection in these cats. Further studies are important to understand the pathogenicity, epidemiology, and genetic evolution of FePV in these common pet animals.Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(1):395-405. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The family Picornaviridae contains some notable members, including rhinovirus, which infects humans more frequently than any other virus; poliovirus, which has paralysed or killed millions over the years; and foot-and-mouth-disease virus, which led to the creation of dedicated institutes throughout the world. Despite their profound impact on human and animal health, the factors that regulate pathogenesis and tissue tropism are poorly understood. In this article, we review the clinical and economic challenges that these agents pose, summarize current knowledge of host-pathogen interactions and highlight a few of the many outstanding questions that remain to be answered.Nature Reviews Microbiology 11/2005; 3(10):765-76. · 22.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel human rhinovirus (HRV) species, HRV-C, was recently discovered, but its clinical features and epidemiology, compared with HRV-A and HRV-B, remains poorly understood, especially in adults. One thousand two hundred nasopharyngeal aspirate samples obtained from hospitalized children and adults during a 1-year period were subject to reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect HRV. The clinical and molecular epidemiology of the 3 HRV species was analyzed. HRVs were detected in 178 (29.7%) of 600 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children and 42 (7%) of 600 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from adults. HRV-A was most prevalent (n=11), followed by HRV-C (n=91) and HRV-B (n=18). Although upper respiratory tract infection was the most common presentation in children, 8 (62%) of the 13 adults with HRV-C infection had pneumonia, compared with 6 (27%) of the 22 adults with HRV-A infection (P<.05). Wheezing episodes were also more common among individuals with HRV-C (37%) and HRV-A (20%) infection than among those with HRV-B (0%) infection (P<.05). Clinical and molecular data analysis revealed HRV-C as a frequent cause of community and institutionalized outbreaks. A diverse set of HRV-C genotypes was circulating throughout the year, among which a potential distinct subgroup of strains was observed. HRV-C is associated with pneumonia in adults and outbreaks of respiratory infections requiring hospitalization. A potential novel HRV-C subgroup was identified.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2009; 200(7):1096-103. · 5.85 Impact Factor
Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Picornavirus, Canine
Picornavirus, Discovered in Dogs
Patrick C. Y. Woo,a,b,c,dSusanna K. P. Lau,a,b,c,dGarnet K. Y. Choi,aCyril C. Y. Yip,aYi Huang,aHoi-Wah Tsoi,d
and Kwok-Yung Yuena,b,c,d
Department of Microbiology,aState Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases,bResearch Centre of Infection and Immunology,cCarol Yu Centre of Infection,dThe
University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Based on genotypic and serological characterization, picornavi-
ruses are currently divided into 12 genera. In the last few years,
discovered and in the number of their genomes being sequenced,
including those of three avian picornaviruses, three bat picorna-
viruses, and one feline picornavirus discovered in our previous
studies carried out in Hong Kong (1, 2, 7). We also recently re-
ported the discovery of a novel picornavirus-like virus, canine
picodicistrovirus, in the picornavirus-like superfamily, with two
ing the process of this molecular epidemiology study of picorna-
viruses in dogs, we discovered a novel picornavirus in fecal, naso-
pharyngeal, and urine samples from dogs (6). We proposed that
this virus be named canine picornavirus (CanPV).
with an EZ1 virus minikit (Qiagen, Germany), using RNA ex-
tracted from the fecal swab of a dog positive for CanPV as a tem-
plate. RNA was converted to cDNA by a combined random-
priming and oligo(dT)-priming strategy. The genome was
sequenced by genome walking using degenerate primers and ad-
ditional primers designed from the results of each round of se-
quencing (1, 2, 4, 6–9). DNA sequencing was performed using an
end of the viral genome was confirmed by rapid amplification of
ited to produce the final genome sequence (1, 2, 4, 6–9).
of 41.0% after exclusion of the polyadenylated tract. The genome
organization is similar to that of other picornaviruses, with the
characteristic gene order 5=-VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1-2A-2B-2C-3A-
3B-3Cpro-3Dpol-3= (3Cproand 3Dpolare 3C protease and 3D poly-
merase, respectively). Both the 5= (668 bases) and 3= (143 bases)
ends of the genome contain untranslated regions (UTRs). The
genome contains a single open reading frame of 7,137 bases,
which encodes a polyprotein precursor of 2,378 amino acids. In
the 5= UTR, the conserved sequence Y6-X54-AUG and a GNRA
sequence, a motif conserved among picornavirus IRES, are pres-
ent. The IRES of CanPV conforms to the structure of type I IRES.
A leader protein (L) is present, but it does not possess the charac-
icornaviruses are positive-sense, singled-stranded RNA vi-
ruses found in humans and a wide variety of animals (3, 5).
2A of CanPV possesses the characteristic catalytic amino acid res-
GXXGXGKS motif for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding
and the DDLXQ motif for putative helicase activity. The 3Cproof
CanPV contains the catalytic triad His-Asp-Cys. Like 3Dpol, it
contains the conserved KDE(LI)R, GG(LMN)PSG, YGDD, and
FLKR motifs. Phylogenetically, CanPV is most closely related to
with 54% to 58%, 60%, and 64% to 67% amino acid identities
between the P1, P2, and P3 of CanPV and those of the three bat
picornaviruses, suggesting that they may form a novel genus in
Nucleotide sequence accession number. The complete ge-
nome sequence of CanPV (strain 325F) has been deposited in
GenBank under accession no. JN831356.
We thank Alan Chi-Kong Wong, Siu-Fai Leung, Chik-Chuen Lay,
Thomas Sit, K. F. Chan, Michelle L. Yeung, Byung Mo Hwang, Suet Yee
port. We also thank the members of the Animal Management Centres of
Hui Hoy, and Hui Ming with the genomic sequencing platform.
This work was partly supported by a Research Grant Council grant
(HKU 783611 M); the University Development Fund and Strategic Re-
search Theme Fund of, the University of Hong Kong; the Tung Wah
Research Fund for the Control of Infectious Diseases of the Health, Wel-
the late Lui Hac Minh; and the Consultancy Service for Enhancing Labo-
ment of Health.
Received 28 December 2011 Accepted 3 January 2012
Address correspondence to Kwok-Yung Yuen, email@example.com.
P. C. Y. Woo and S. K. P. Lau contributed equally to this article.
Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
jvi.asm.org0022-538X/12/$12.00 Journal of Virology p. 3402–3403
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novirus C in children and adults in Hong Kong reveals a possible distinct
human rhinovirus C subgroup. J. Infect. Dis. 200:1096–1103.
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March 2012 Volume 86 Number 6jvi.asm.org 3403