Increased dosage of the chromosome 21 ortholog Dyrk1a promotes megakaryoblastic leukemia in a murine model of Down syndrome.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.
The Journal of clinical investigation (Impact Factor: 13.77). 03/2012; 122(3):948-62. DOI: 10.1172/JCI60455
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Individuals with Down syndrome (DS; also known as trisomy 21) have a markedly increased risk of leukemia in childhood but a decreased risk of solid tumors in adulthood. Acquired mutations in the transcription factor-encoding GATA1 gene are observed in nearly all individuals with DS who are born with transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD), a clonal preleukemia, and/or who develop acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Individuals who do not have DS but bear germline GATA1 mutations analogous to those detected in individuals with TMD and DS-AMKL are not predisposed to leukemia. To better understand the functional contribution of trisomy 21 to leukemogenesis, we used mouse and human cell models of DS to reproduce the multistep pathogenesis of DS-AMKL and to identify chromosome 21 genes that promote megakaryoblastic leukemia in children with DS. Our results revealed that trisomy for only 33 orthologs of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) genes was sufficient to cooperate with GATA1 mutations to initiate megakaryoblastic leukemia in vivo. Furthermore, through a functional screening of the trisomic genes, we demonstrated that DYRK1A, which encodes dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A, was a potent megakaryoblastic tumor-promoting gene that contributed to leukemogenesis through dysregulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation. Given that calcineurin/NFAT pathway inhibition has been implicated in the decreased tumor incidence in adults with DS, our results show that the same pathway can be both proleukemic in children and antitumorigenic in adults.

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    ABSTRACT: DYRK1A is a dosage-sensitive protein kinase that fulfills key roles during development and in tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation results in human pathologies. DYRK1A is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of mammalian cells, although its nuclear function remains unclear. Genome-wide analysis of DYRK1A-associated loci reveals that the kinase is recruited preferentially to promoters of genes actively transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), which are functionally associated with translation, RNA processing, and cell cycle. DYRK1A-bound promoter sequences are highly enriched in a conserved palindromic motif, which is necessary to drive DYRK1A-dependent transcriptional activation. DYRK1A phosphorylates the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII at Ser2 and Ser5. Depletion of DYRK1A results in reduced association of RNAPII at the target promoters as well as hypophosphorylation of the RNAPII CTD along the target gene bodies. These results are consistent with DYRK1A being a transcriptional regulator by acting as a CTD kinase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular cell 02/2015; 57:1-15. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.12.026 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The incidence of Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (AMKL) is 500-fold higher in children with Down Syndrome (DS) compared with non-DS children, but the relevance of trisomy 21 as a specific background of AMKL in DS is still an open issue. Several Authors have determined gene expression profiles by microarray analysis in DS and/or non-DS AMKL. Due to the rarity of AMKL, these studies were typically limited to a small group of samples.Methods We generated integrated quantitative transcriptome maps by systematic meta-analysis from any available gene expression profile dataset related to AMKL in pediatric age. This task has been accomplished using a tool recently described by us for the generation and the analysis of quantitative transcriptome maps, TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper), which allows effective integration of data obtained from different experimenters, experimental platforms and data sources. This allowed us to explore gene expression changes involved in transition from normal megakaryocytes (MK, n=19) to DS (n=43) or non-DS (n=45) AMKL blasts, including the analysis of Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder (TMD, n=20), a pre-leukemia condition.ResultsWe propose a biological model of the transcriptome depicting progressive changes from MK to TMD and then to DS AMKL. The data indicate the repression of genes involved in MK differentiation, in particular the cluster on chromosome 4 including PF4 (platelet factor 4) and PPBP (pro-platelet basic protein); the gene for the mitogenactivated protein kinase MAPK3K10 and the thrombopoietin receptor gene MPL. Moreover, comparing both DS and non-DS AMKL with MK, we identified three potential clinical markers of progression to AMKL: TMEM241 (transmembrane protein 241) was the most over-expressed single gene, while APOC2 (apolipoprotein C-II) and ZNF587B (zinc finger protein 587B) appear to be the most discriminant markers of progression, specifically to DS AMKL. Finally, the chromosome 21 (chr21) genes resulted to be the most over-expressed in DS and non-DS AMKL, as well as in TMD, pointing out a key role of chr21 genes in differentiating AMKL from MK.Conclusions Our study presents an integrated original model of the DS AMLK transcriptome, providing the identification of genes relevant for its pathophysiology which can potentially be new clinical markers.
    BMC Medical Genomics 12/2014; 7(1):63. DOI:10.1186/s12920-014-0063-z · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The convenient synthesis of a focused library (forty molecules) of novel 6,6,5-tricyclic thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazolines was realized mainly under microwave irradiation. A novel 6-aminobenzo[d]thiazole-2,7-dicarbonitrile (1) was used as a versatile molecular platform for the synthesis of various derivatives. Kinase inhibition, of the obtained final compounds, was evaluated on a panel of two kinases (DYRK1A/1B) together with some known reference DYRK1A and DYRK1B inhibitors (harmine, TG003, NCGC-00189310 and leucettine L41). Compound IC50 values were obtained and compared. Five of the novel thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazoline derivatives prepared, EHT 5372 (8c), EHT 6840 (8h), EHT 1610 (8i), EHT 9851 (8k) and EHT 3356 (9b) displayed single-digit nanomolar or subnanomolar IC50 values and are among the most potent DYRK1A/1B inhibitors disclosed to date. DYRK1A/1B kinases are known to be involved in the regulation of various molecular pathways associated with oncology, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer disease, AD, or other tauopathies), genetic diseases (such as Down Syndrome, DS), as well as diseases involved in abnormal pre-mRNA splicing. The compounds described in this communication constitute a highly potent set of novel molecular probes to evaluate the biology/pharmacology of DYR1A/1B in such diseases.
    Molecules 09/2014; 19(10):15411-15439. DOI:10.3390/molecules191015411 · 2.10 Impact Factor

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Meghan Bliss-Moreau