Long-term Seizure Control Outcomes After Resection of Gangliogliomas
ABSTRACT Gangliogliomas are rare glioneuronal tumors that typically cause refractory seizures during the first 3 decades of life.
To determine the prognosticators of seizure outcome after surgery for ganglioglioma.
We reviewed the cases of 66 patients who underwent resection of gangliogliomas at the University of California, San Francisco. Demographic, seizure history, and operative data were examined for statistical association with postoperative seizure outcomes.
Of the 66 patients who underwent surgical resection of ganglioglioma, 49 patients (74%) presented with a history of seizures. Of those 49 patients, 50% presented with intractable epilepsy. Temporal lobe gangliogliomas were present in 76% of the patients who presented with a history of seizures. Electrocorticography was performed on 35% of the patients, and of those patients, 82% underwent extended lesionectomy to remove abnormally epileptogenic extralesional tissue. The median follow-up duration was 6.9 years, during which tumor progression occurred in 38% of patients who underwent subtotal resection and in 8% of patients who underwent gross total resection (P = .02). Overall, 85% of patients were seizure free (International League Against Epilepsy class I or II) 5 years after surgery. Subtotal resection was associated with poor seizure outcomes 1 year after resection (odds ratio = 14.6; 95% confidence interval = 2.4-87.7): rates of seizure freedom were 54% after subtotal resection, 96% after gross total resection, and 93% after gross total resection with intraoperative electrocorticography-guided extended lesionectomy.
We report excellent long-term seizure control outcomes after surgery for gangliogliomas. Intraoperative electrocorticography may be a useful adjunct for guiding extended resection in certain pharmacoresistant epilepsy patients with gangliogliomas. Subtotal resection is associated with higher rates of tumor progression and nonoptimal seizure outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation.
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ABSTRACT: Brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTE) is common in low- and high-grade gliomas. The risk of seizures varies between 60% and 100% among low-grade gliomas and between 40% and 60% in glioblastomas. The presence of seizures in patients with brain tumors implies favorable and unfavorable factors. New-onset seizures represent an early warning sign for the presence of a brain tumor and count as a good prognostic factor for survival. Recurrence or worsening of seizures during the course of disease may signal tumor progression. Each of the modalities for tumor control (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) contributes to seizure control. Nevertheless, one third of BTE shows pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and may severely impair the burden of living with a brain tumor. For symptomatic therapy of BTE, seizure type and individual patient factors determine the appropriate AED. Randomized controlled trials in partial epilepsy in adults to which type BTE belongs and additional studies in gliomas indicate that levetiracetam is the agent of choice, followed by valproic acid (VPA). In the case of recurring seizures, combining these two drugs (polytherapy) seems effective and possibly synergistic. If either one is not effective or not well tolerated, lacosamide, lamotrigine, or zonisamide are additional options. A new and exciting insight is the potential contribution of VPA to prolonged survival, particularly in glioblastomas. A practice guideline on symptomatic medical management including dose schedules of AEDs is supplied.The Oncologist 06/2014; 19(7). DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0060 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Epilepsy is common in patients with a glioma. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of epilepsy treatment, but may cause side effects and may negatively impact neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Besides antiepileptic drugs, anti-tumour treatment, which currently consists of surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, may contribute to seizure control as well. In glioma patients with seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy the question emerges whether AEDs should be continued, particularly in the case where anti-tumour treatment has been successful. We propose to explore the possibility of AED withdrawal in glioma patients with long-term seizure freedom after anti-tumour therapy and without signs of tumour progression.Methods/designWe initiate a prospective, observational study exploring the decision-making process on the withdrawal or continuation of AEDs in low-grade and anaplastic glioma patients with stable disease and prolonged seizure freedom after anti-tumour treatment, and the effects of AED withdrawal or continuation on seizure freedom. We recruit participants through the outpatient clinics of three tertiary referral centers for brain tumour patients in The Netherlands. The patient and the treating physician make a shared decision to either withdraw or continue AED treatment. Over a one-year period, we aim to include 100 glioma patients. We expect approximately half of the participants to be willing to withdraw AEDs. The primary outcome measures are: 1) the outcome of the shared-decision making on AED withdrawal or continuation, and decision related arguments, and 2) seizure freedom at 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. We will also evaluate seizure type and frequency in case of seizure recurrence, as well as neurological symptoms, adverse effects related to AED treatment or withdrawal, other anti-tumour treatments and tumour progression.DiscussionThis study addresses two issues that are currently unexplored. First, it will explore the willingness to withdraw AEDs in glioma patients, and second, it will assess the risk of seizure recurrence in case AEDs are withdrawn in this specific patient population. This study aims to contribute to a more tailored AED treatment, and prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful use of AEDs in glioma patients.BMC Neurology 08/2014; 14(1):157. DOI:10.1186/s12883-014-0157-4 · 2.49 Impact Factor