Critical role of the interleukin-23/T-helper 17 cell axis in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
ABSTRACT Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease with dynamic interactions between the immune system and the skin. Recent studies have demonstrated that the interleukin (IL)-23/T-helper (Th)17 cell axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, the biology and function of Th17 cells as well as the crucial role of IL-23 in the context of the Th17 cell-dependent chronic inflammation in psoriatic skins are reviewed. Recent study about the role of the IL-23/Th17 axis in the pathogenesis of psoriasis-like lesions in K5.Stat3C transgenic mice is also discussed. This model mouse for psoriasis not only verifies the therapeutic efficacies of biologics that specifically target the IL-23/Th17 axis, but also clarifies the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
- SourceAvailable from: Terrill Mcclanahan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL) 23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a p19 subunit and the p40 subunit of IL-12. IL-23 affects memory T cell and inflammatory macrophage function through engagement of a novel receptor (IL-23R) on these cells. Recent analysis of the contribution of IL-12 and IL-23 to central nervous system autoimmune inflammation demonstrated that IL-23 rather than IL-12 was the essential cytokine. Using gene-targeted mice lacking only IL-12 (p35-/-) or IL-23 (p19-/-), we show that the specific absence of IL-23 is protective, whereas loss of IL-12 exacerbates collagen-induced arthritis. IL-23 gene-targeted mice did not develop clinical signs of disease and were completely resistant to the development of joint and bone pathology. Resistance correlated with an absence of IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells despite normal induction of collagen-specific, interferon-gamma-producing T helper 1 cells. In contrast, IL-12-deficient p35-/- mice developed more IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells, as well as elevated mRNA expression of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-17 in affected tissues of diseased mice. The data presented here indicate that IL-23 is an essential promoter of end-stage joint autoimmune inflammation, whereas IL-12 paradoxically mediates protection from autoimmune inflammation.Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2004; 198(12):1951-7. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Th17 cells are a distinct lineage of effector CD4(+) T cells characterized by their production of interleukin (IL)-17. We demonstrate that Th17 cells also expressed IL-22, an IL-10 family member, at substantially higher amounts than T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells. Similar to IL-17A, IL-22 expression was initiated by transforming growth factor beta signaling in the context of IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines. The subsequent expansion of IL-22-producing cells was dependent on IL-23. We further demonstrate that IL-22 was coexpressed in vitro and in vivo with both IL-17A and IL-17F. To study a functional relationship among these cytokines, we examined the expression of antimicrobial peptides by primary keratinocytes treated with combinations of IL-22, IL-17A, and IL-17F. IL-22 in conjunction with IL-17A or IL-17F synergistically induced the expression of beta-defensin 2 and S100A9 and additively enhanced the expression of S100A7 and S100A8. Collectively, we have identified IL-22 as a new cytokine expressed by Th17 cells that synergizes with IL-17A or IL-17F to regulate genes associated with skin innate immunity.Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2006; 203(10):2271-9. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is characterized by activation of T cells with a type 1 cytokine profile. IL-12 and IL-23 produced by APCs are essential for inducing Th1 effector cells. Promising clinical results of administration of an Ab specific for the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23 (anti-IL-12p40) have been reported recently. This study evaluated histological changes and mRNA expression of relevant cytokines and chemokines in psoriatic skin lesions following a single administration of anti-IL-12p40, using immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Expression levels of type 1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and chemokines (IL-8, IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10, and MCP-1) were significantly reduced at 2 wk posttreatment. The rapid decrease of these expression levels preceded clinical response and histologic changes. Interestingly, the level of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was also significantly reduced. Significant reductions in TNF-alpha levels and infiltrating T cells were observed in high responders (improvement in clinical score, > or =75% at 16 wk), but not in low responders. Of importance, the levels of APC cytokines, IL-12p40 and IL-23p19, were significantly decreased in both responder populations, with larger decreases in high responders. In addition, baseline levels of TNF-alpha significantly correlated with the clinical improvement at 16 wk, suggesting that these levels may predict therapeutic responsiveness to anti-IL-12p40. Thus, in a human Th1-mediated disease, blockade of APC cytokines by anti-IL-12p40 down-regulates expression of type 1 cytokines and chemokines that are downstream of IL-12/IL-23, and also IL-12/IL-23 themselves, with a pattern indicative of coordinated deactivation of APCs and Th1 cells.The Journal of Immunology 11/2006; 177(7):4917-26. · 5.52 Impact Factor