A Multicenter Collaborative Approach to Reducing Pediatric Codes Outside the ICU
ABSTRACT The Child Health Corporation of America formed a multicenter collaborative to decrease the rate of pediatric codes outside the ICU by 50%, double the days between these events, and improve the patient safety culture scores by 5 percentage points.
A multidisciplinary pediatric advisory panel developed a comprehensive change package of process improvement strategies and measures for tracking progress. Learning sessions, conference calls, and data submission facilitated collaborative group learning and implementation. Twenty Child Health Corporation of America hospitals participated in this 12-month improvement project. Each hospital identified at least 1 noncritical care target unit in which to implement selected elements of the change package. Strategies to improve prevention, detection, and correction of the deteriorating patient ranged from relatively simple, foundational changes to more complex, advanced changes. Each hospital selected a broad range of change package elements for implementation using rapid-cycle methodologies. The primary outcome measure was reduction in codes per 1000 patient days. Secondary outcomes were days between codes and change in patient safety culture scores.
Code rate for the collaborative did not decrease significantly (3% decrease). Twelve hospitals reported additional data after the collaborative and saw significant improvement in code rates (24% decrease). Patient safety culture scores improved by 4.5% to 8.5%.
A complex process, such as patient deterioration, requires sufficient time and effort to achieve improved outcomes and create a deeply embedded culture of patient safety. The collaborative model can accelerate improvements achieved by individual institutions.
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ABSTRACT: Patient handoffs in health care require transfer of information, responsibility, and authority between providers. Suboptimal patient handoffs pose a serious safety risk. Studies demonstrating the impact of improved patient handoffs on care failures are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multihospital collaborative designed to decrease handoff-related care failures.METHODS: Twenty-three children's hospitals participated in a quality improvement collaborative aimed at reducing handoff-related care failures. The improvement was guided by evidence-based recommendations regarding handoff intent and content, standardized handoff tools/methods, and clear transition of responsibility. Hospitals tailored handoff elements to locally important handoff types. Handoff-related care failures were compared between baseline and 3 intervention periods. Secondary outcomes measured compliance to specific change package elements and balancing measure of staff satisfaction.RESULTS: Twenty-three children's hospitals evaluated 7864 handoffs over the 12-month study period. Handoff-related care failures decreased from baseline (25.8%) to the final intervention period (7.9%) (P < .05). Significant improvement was observed in every handoff type studied. Compliance to change package elements improved (achieving a common understanding about the patient from 86% to 96% [P < .05]; clear transition of responsibility from 92% to 96% [P < .05]; and minimized interruptions and distractions from 84% to 90% [P < .05]) as did overall satisfaction with the handoff (from 55% to 70% [P < .05]).CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a standardized evidence-based handoff process across 23 children's hospitals resulted in a significant decrease in handoff-related care failures, observed over all handoff types. Compliance to critical components of the handoff process improved, as did provider satisfaction.Pediatrics 07/2014; 134(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-1844 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequency of pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation events occurring in ICUs compared to general wards. We hypothesized that the proportion of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation provided in ICUs versus general wards has increased over the past decade, and this shift is associated with improved resuscitation outcomes. Design: Prospective and observational study. Setting: Total of 315 hospitals in the American Heart Association’s Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation database. Patients: Total of 5,870 pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation events between January 1, 2000 and September 14, 2010. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation events were defined as external chest compressions longer than 1 minute. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was proportion of total ICU versus general ward cardiopulmonary resuscitation events over time evaluated by chi-square test for trend. Secondary outcome included return of spontaneous circulation following the cardiopulmonary resuscitation event. Among 5,870 pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation events, 5,477 (93.3%) occurred in ICUs compared to 393 (6.7%) in inpatient wards. Over time, significantly more of these cardiopulmonary resuscitation events occurred in the ICU compared to the wards (test for trend: p < 0.01), with a prominent shift noted between 2003 and 2004 (2000–2003: 87–91% vs 2004–2010: 94–96%). In a multivariable model controlling for within center variability and other potential confounders, return of spontaneous circulation increased in 2004–2010 compared with 2000–2003 (relative risk, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03–1.13). Conclusions: In-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation is much more commonly provided in ICUs than in wards, and the proportion has increased significantly over the past decade, with concomitant increases in return of spontaneous circulation.Critical Care Medicine 10/2013; 41(10):2292-2297. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31828cf0c0 · 6.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Medical emergency teams (METs) can reduce adverse events in hospitalized children. We aimed to model the financial costs and benefits of operating an MET and determine the annual reduction in critical deterioration (CD) events required to offset MET costs. METHODS: We performed a single-center cohort study between July 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012 to determine the cost of CD events (unplanned transfers to the ICU with mechanical ventilation or vasopressors in the 12 hours after transfer) as compared with transfers to the ICU without CD. We then performed a cost-benefit analysis evaluating varying MET compositions and staffing models (freestanding or concurrent responsibilities) on the annual reduction in CD events needed to offset MET costs. RESULTS: Patients who had CD cost $99 773 (95% confidence interval, $69 431 to $130 116; P < .001) more during their post-event hospital stay than transfers to the ICU that did not meet CD criteria. Annual MET operating costs ranged from $287 145 for a nurse and respiratory therapist team with concurrent responsibilities to $2 358 112 for a nurse, respiratory therapist, and ICU attending physician freestanding team. In base-case analysis, a nurse, respiratory therapist, and ICU fellow team with concurrent responsibilities cost $350 698 per year, equivalent to a reduction of 3.5 CD events. CONCLUSIONS: CD is expensive. The costs of operating a MET can plausibly be recouped with a modest reduction in CD events. Hospitals reimbursed with bundled payments could achieve real financial savings by reducing CD with an MET.Pediatrics 07/2014; 134(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-0140 · 5.30 Impact Factor